Toxoplasmosis, Toxoplasmosis, Ocular, Vaccines, curative medicines, pathogenesis, Genetics, Molecular Biology, Immunology, omics, Systems Biology
  • Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA, Fellowship Infectious Disease 1978
  • University of California, San Francisco, CA, Sr Asst Resident Medicine 1974
  • University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, Jr Asst Resident Medicine 1973
  • University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, Intern Medicine 1972
  • University of California School of Medicine, San Francisco, CA, MD Medicine 1971
  • University of California, Berkeley, CA, BA Zoology 1967
Biosciences Graduate Program Association
Awards & Honors
  • 1965 - California Heart Association and USPHS Student Fellowships University of California, San Francisco
  • 1978 - NIH Training Grant Stanford University
  • 1996 - now DirectorToxoplasmosis Center The University of Chicago
  1. Gomez CA, Budvytyte LN, Press C, Zhou L, McLeod R, Maldonado Y, Montoya JG, Contopoulos-Ioannidis DG. Evaluation of Three Point-of-Care Tests for Detection of Toxoplasma Immunoglobulin IgG and IgM in the United States: Proof of Concept and Challenges. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2018 Oct; 5(10):ofy215. View in: PubMed

  2. Lykins JD, Filippova EV, Halavaty AS, Minasov G, Zhou Y, Dubrovska I, Flores KJ, Shuvalova LA, Ruan J, El Bissati K, Dovgin S, Roberts CW, Woods S, Moulton JD, Moulton H, McPhillie MJ, Muench SP, Fishwick CWG, Sabini E, Shanmugam D, Roos DS, McLeod R, Anderson WF, Ngô HM. CSGID Solves Structures and Identifies Phenotypes for Five Enzymes in Toxoplasma gondii. Front Cell Infect Microbiol. 2018; 8:352. View in: PubMed

  3. El Bissati K, Levigne P, Lykins J, Adlaoui EB, Barkat A, Berraho A, Laboudi M, El Mansouri B, Ibrahimi A, Rhajaoui M, Quinn F, Murugesan M, Seghrouchni F, Gómez-Marín JE, Peyron F, McLeod R. Global initiative for congenital toxoplasmosis: an observational and international comparative clinical analysis. Emerg Microbes Infect. 2018 Sep 27; 7(1):165. View in: PubMed

  4. Lykins J, Li X, Levigne P, Zhou Y, El Bissati K, Clouser F, Wallon M, Morel F, Leahy K, El Mansouri B, Siddiqui M, Leong N, Michalowski M, Irwin E, Goodall P, Ismail M, Christmas M, Adlaoui EB, Rhajaoui M, Barkat A, Cong H, Begeman IJ, Lai BS, Contopoulos-Ioannidis DG, Montoya JG, Maldonado Y, Ramirez R, Press C, Peyron F, McLeod R. Rapid, inexpensive, fingerstick, whole-blood, sensitive, specific, point-of-care test for anti-Toxoplasma antibodies. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2018 Aug; 12(8):e0006536. View in: PubMed

  5. Naranjo-Galvis CA, de-la-Torre A, Mantilla-Muriel LE, Beltrán-Angarita L, Elcoroaristizabal-Martín X, McLeod R, Alliey-Rodriguez N, Begeman IJ, López de Mesa C, Gómez-Marín JE, Sepúlveda-Arias JC. Genetic Polymorphisms in Cytokine Genes in Colombian Patients with Ocular Toxoplasmosis. Infect Immun. 2018 Apr; 86(4). View in: PubMed

  6. El Bissati K, Zhou Y, Paulillo SM, Raman SK, Karch CP, Roberts CW, Lanar DE, Reed S, Fox C, Carter D, Alexander J, Sette A, Sidney J, Lorenzi H, Begeman IJ, Burkhard P, McLeod R. Protein nanovaccine confers robust immunity against Toxoplasma. NPJ Vaccines. 2017; 2:24. View in: PubMed

  7. Ngô HM, Zhou Y, Lorenzi H, Wang K, Kim TK, Zhou Y, Bissati KE, Mui E, Fraczek L, Rajagopala SV, Roberts CW, Henriquez FL, Montpetit A, Blackwell JM, Jamieson SE, Wheeler K, Begeman IJ, Naranjo-Galvis C, Alliey-Rodriguez N, Davis RG, Soroceanu L, Cobbs C, Steindler DA, Boyer K, Noble AG, Swisher CN, Heydemann PT, Rabiah P, Withers S, Soteropoulos P, Hood L, McLeod R. Toxoplasma Modulates Signature Pathways of Human Epilepsy, Neurodegeneration & Cancer. Sci Rep. 2017 09 13; 7(1):11496. View in: PubMed

  8. Edelblum KL, Sharon G, Singh G, Odenwald MA, Sailer A, Cao S, Ravens S, Thomsen I, El Bissati K, McLeod R, Dong C, Gurbuxani S, Prinz I, Mazmanian SK, Turner JR. The Microbiome Activates CD4 T-cell-mediated Immunity to Compensate for Increased Intestinal Permeability. Cell Mol Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2017 Sep; 4(2):285-297. View in: PubMed

  9. Begeman IJ, Lykins J, Zhou Y, Lai BS, Levigne P, El Bissati K, Boyer K, Withers S, Clouser F, Noble AG, Rabiah P, Swisher CN, Heydemann PT, Contopoulos-Ioannidis DG, Montoya JG, Maldonado Y, Ramirez R, Press C, Stillwaggon E, Peyron F, McLeod R. Point-of-care testing for Toxoplasma gondii IgG/IgM using Toxoplasma ICT IgG-IgM test with sera from the United States and implications for developing countries. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2017 Jun; 11(6):e0005670. View in: PubMed

  10. Ying Y, Verma SK, Kwok OCH, Alibana F, Mcleod R, Su C, Dubey JP, Pradhan AK. Prevalence and genetic characterization of Toxoplasma gondii in free-range chickens from grocery stores and farms in Maryland, Ohio and Massachusetts, USA. Parasitol Res. 2017 May; 116(5):1591-1595. View in: PubMed

  11. Rengifo-Herrera C, Pile E, García A, Pérez A, Pérez D, Nguyen FK, de la Guardia V, Mcleod R, Caballero Z. Seroprevalence of Toxoplasma gondii in domestic pets from metropolitan regions of Panama. Parasite. 2017; 24:9. View in: PubMed

  12. El Bissati K, Chentoufi AA, Krishack PA, Zhou Y, Woods S, Dubey JP, Vang L, Lykins J, Broderick KE, Mui E, Suzuki Y, Sa Q, Bi S, Cardona N, Verma SK, Frazeck L, Reardon CA, Sidney J, Alexander J, Sette A, Vedvick T, Fox C, Guderian JA, Reed S, Roberts CW, McLeod R. Adjuvanted multi-epitope vaccines protect HLA-A*11:01 transgenic mice against Toxoplasma gondii. JCI Insight. 2016 Sep 22; 1(15):e85955. View in: PubMed

  13. McPhillie M, Zhou Y, El Bissati K, Dubey J, Lorenzi H, Capper M, Lukens AK, Hickman M, Muench S, Verma SK, Weber CR, Wheeler K, Gordon J, Sanders J, Moulton H, Wang K, Kim TK, He Y, Santos T, Woods S, Lee P, Donkin D, Kim E, Fraczek L, Lykins J, Esaa F, Alibana-Clouser F, Dovgin S, Weiss L, Brasseur G, Wirth D, Kent M, Hood L, Meunieur B, Roberts CW, Hasnain SS, Antonyuk SV, Fishwick C, McLeod R. New paradigms for understanding and step changes in treating active and chronic, persistent apicomplexan infections. Sci Rep. 2016 Jul 14; 6:29179. View in: PubMed

  14. Lykins J, Wang K, Wheeler K, Clouser F, Dixon A, El Bissati K, Zhou Y, Lyttle C, Rzhetsky A, McLeod R. Understanding Toxoplasmosis in the United States Through "Large Data" Analyses. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Aug 15; 63(4):468-75. View in: PubMed

  15. McMurtrey C, Trolle T, Sansom T, Remesh SG, Kaever T, Bardet W, Jackson K, McLeod R, Sette A, Nielsen M, Zajonc DM, Blader IJ, Peters B, Hildebrand W. Toxoplasma gondii peptide ligands open the gate of the HLA class I binding groove. Elife. 2016 Jan 29; 5. View in: PubMed

  16. McLeod R, Wheeler KM, Boyer K. Reply to Wallon and Peyron. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Mar 15; 62(6):812-4. View in: PubMed

  17. Contopoulos-Ioannidis D, Wheeler KM, Ramirez R, Press C, Mui E, Zhou Y, Van Tubbergen C, Prasad S, Maldonado Y, Withers S, Boyer KM, Noble AG, Rabiah P, Swisher CN, Heydemann P, Wroblewski K, Karrison T, Grigg ME, Montoya JG, McLeod R. Clustering of Toxoplasma gondii Infections Within Families of Congenitally Infected Infants. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Dec 15; 61(12):1815-24. View in: PubMed

  18. Hutson SL, Wheeler KM, McLone D, Frim D, Penn R, Swisher CN, Heydemann PT, Boyer KM, Noble AG, Rabiah P, Withers S, Montoya JG, Wroblewski K, Karrison T, Grigg ME, McLeod R. Patterns of Hydrocephalus Caused by Congenital Toxoplasma gondii Infection Associate With Parasite Genetics. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Dec 15; 61(12):1831-4. View in: PubMed

  19. Sanders JL, Zhou Y, Moulton HM, Moulton ZX, McLeod R, Dubey JP, Weiss LM, Kent ML. The zebrafish, Danio rerio, as a model for Toxoplasma gondii: an initial description of infection in fish. J Fish Dis. 2015 Jul; 38(7):675-9. View in: PubMed

  20. Edelblum KL, Singh G, Odenwald MA, Lingaraju A, El Bissati K, McLeod R, Sperling AI, Turner JR. ?d Intraepithelial Lymphocyte Migration Limits Transepithelial Pathogen Invasion and Systemic Disease in Mice. Gastroenterology. 2015 Jun; 148(7):1417-26. View in: PubMed

  21. El Bissati K, Zhou Y, Dasgupta D, Cobb D, Dubey JP, Burkhard P, Lanar DE, McLeod R. Effectiveness of a novel immunogenic nanoparticle platform for Toxoplasma peptide vaccine in HLA transgenic mice. Vaccine. 2014 May 30; 32(26):3243-8. View in: PubMed

  22. McLeod R. Utility and limitations of T. gondii-specific IgM serum antibodies in the diagnosis of congenital toxoplasmosis in Porto Alegre. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2014 Jul-Aug; 90(4):329-31. View in: PubMed

  23. Witola WH, Liu SR, Montpetit A, Welti R, Hypolite M, Roth M, Zhou Y, Mui E, Cesbron-Delauw MF, Fournie GJ, Cavailles P, Bisanz C, Boyer K, Withers S, Noble AG, Swisher CN, Heydemann PT, Rabiah P, Muench SP, McLeod R. ALOX12 in human toxoplasmosis. Infect Immun. 2014 Jul; 82(7):2670-9. View in: PubMed

  24. Wilkinson C, McPhillie MJ, Zhou Y, Woods S, Afanador GA, Rawson S, Khaliq F, Prigge ST, Roberts CW, Rice DW, McLeod R, Fishwick CW, Muench SP. The benzimidazole based drugs show good activity against T. gondii but poor activity against its proposed enoyl reductase enzyme target. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2014 Feb 01; 24(3):911-6. View in: PubMed

  25. Zhou Y, Fomovska A, Muench S, Lai BS, Mui E, McLeod R. Spiroindolone that inhibits PfATPase4 is a potent, cidal inhibitor of Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites in vitro and in vivo. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2014; 58(3):1789-92. View in: PubMed

  26. Afanador GA, Muench SP, McPhillie M, Fomovska A, Schön A, Zhou Y, Cheng G, Stec J, Freundlich JS, Shieh HM, Anderson JW, Jacobus DP, Fidock DA, Kozikowski AP, Fishwick CW, Rice DW, Freire E, McLeod R, Prigge ST. Discrimination of potent inhibitors of Toxoplasma gondii enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase by a thermal shift assay. Biochemistry. 2013 Dec 23; 52(51):9155-66. View in: PubMed

  27. Stec J, Fomovska A, Afanador GA, Muench SP, Zhou Y, Lai BS, El Bissati K, Hickman MR, Lee PJ, Leed SE, Auschwitz JM, Sommervile C, Woods S, Roberts CW, Rice D, Prigge ST, McLeod R, Kozikowski AP. Modification of triclosan scaffold in search of improved inhibitors for enoyl-acyl carrier protein (ACP) reductase in Toxoplasma gondii. ChemMedChem. 2013 Jul; 8(7):1138-60. View in: PubMed

  28. Muench SP, Stec J, Zhou Y, Afanador GA, McPhillie MJ, Hickman MR, Lee PJ, Leed SE, Auschwitz JM, Prigge ST, Rice DW, McLeod R. Development of a triclosan scaffold which allows for adaptations on both the A- and B-ring for transport peptides. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013 Jun 15; 23(12):3551-5. View in: PubMed

  29. Burrowes D, Boyer K, Swisher CN, Noble AG, Sautter M, Heydemann P, Rabiah P, Lee D, McLeod R. Spinal Cord Lesions in Congenital Toxoplasmosis Demonstrated with Neuroimaging, Including Their Successful Treatment in an Adult. J Neuroparasitology. 2012 Mar; 3(2012). View in: PubMed

  30. Cheng G, Muench SP, Zhou Y, Afanador GA, Mui EJ, Fomovska A, Lai BS, Prigge ST, Woods S, Roberts CW, Hickman MR, Lee PJ, Leed SE, Auschwitz JM, Rice DW, McLeod R. Design, synthesis, and biological activity of diaryl ether inhibitors of Toxoplasma gondii enoyl reductase. Bioorg Med Chem Lett. 2013 Apr 01; 23(7):2035-43. View in: PubMed

  31. Béla SR, Dutra MS, Mui E, Montpetit A, Oliveira FS, Oliveira SC, Arantes RM, Antonelli LR, McLeod R, Gazzinelli RT. Impaired innate immunity in mice deficient in interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 leads to defective type 1 T cell responses, B cell expansion, and enhanced susceptibility to infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Infect Immun. 2012 Dec; 80(12):4298-308. View in: PubMed

  32. Fomovska A, Wood RD, Mui E, Dubey JP, Ferreira LR, Hickman MR, Lee PJ, Leed SE, Auschwitz JM, Welsh WJ, Sommerville C, Woods S, Roberts C, McLeod R. Salicylanilide inhibitors of Toxoplasma gondii. J Med Chem. 2012 Oct 11; 55(19):8375-91. View in: PubMed

  33. Lai BS, Witola WH, El Bissati K, Zhou Y, Mui E, Fomovska A, McLeod R. Molecular target validation, antimicrobial delivery, and potential treatment of Toxoplasma gondii infections. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Aug 28; 109(35):14182-7. View in: PubMed

  34. Noble AG, Latkany P, Kusmierczyk J, Mets M, Rabiah P, Boyer K, Jalbrzikowski J, Wroblewski K, Karrison T, Swisher CN, Mieler WF, Meier P, McLeod R. Chorioretinal lesions in mothers of children with congenital toxoplasmosis in the National Collaborative Chicago-based, Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study. Sci Med (Porto Alegre). 2010; 20(1):20-26. View in: PubMed

  35. McLeod R, Boyer KM, Lee D, Mui E, Wroblewski K, Karrison T, Noble AG, Withers S, Swisher CN, Heydemann PT, Sautter M, Babiarz J, Rabiah P, Meier P, Grigg ME. Prematurity and severity are associated with Toxoplasma gondii alleles (NCCCTS, 1981-2009). Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Jun; 54(11):1595-605. View in: PubMed

  36. Fomovska A, Huang Q, El Bissati K, Mui EJ, Witola WH, Cheng G, Zhou Y, Sommerville C, Roberts CW, Bettis S, Prigge ST, Afanador GA, Hickman MR, Lee PJ, Leed SE, Auschwitz JM, Pieroni M, Stec J, Muench SP, Rice DW, Kozikowski AP, McLeod R. Novel N-benzoyl-2-hydroxybenzamide disrupts unique parasite secretory pathway. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2012 May; 56(5):2666-82. View in: PubMed

  37. Stec J, Huang Q, Pieroni M, Kaiser M, Fomovska A, Mui E, Witola WH, Bettis S, McLeod R, Brun R, Kozikowski AP. Synthesis, biological evaluation, and structure-activity relationships of N-benzoyl-2-hydroxybenzamides as agents active against P. falciparum (K1 strain), Trypanosomes, and Leishmania. J Med Chem. 2012 Apr 12; 55(7):3088-100. View in: PubMed

  38. Dubey JP, Ferreira LR, Martins J, McLeod R. Oral oocyst-induced mouse model of toxoplasmosis: effect of infection with Toxoplasma gondii strains of different genotypes, dose, and mouse strains (transgenic, out-bred, in-bred) on pathogenesis and mortality. Parasitology. 2012 Jan; 139(1):1-13. View in: PubMed

  39. Cong H, Mui EJ, Witola WH, Sidney J, Alexander J, Sette A, Maewal A, El Bissati K, Zhou Y, Suzuki Y, Lee D, Woods S, Sommerville C, Henriquez FL, Roberts CW, McLeod R. Toxoplasma gondii HLA-B*0702-restricted GRA7(20-28) peptide with adjuvants and a universal helper T cell epitope elicits CD8(+) T cells producing interferon-? and reduces parasite burden in HLA-B*0702 mice. Hum Immunol. 2012 Jan; 73(1):1-10. View in: PubMed

  40. Boyer K, Hill D, Mui E, Wroblewski K, Karrison T, Dubey JP, Sautter M, Noble AG, Withers S, Swisher C, Heydemann P, Hosten T, Babiarz J, Lee D, Meier P, McLeod R. Unrecognized ingestion of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts leads to congenital toxoplasmosis and causes epidemics in North America. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Dec; 53(11):1081-9. View in: PubMed

  41. Stillwaggon E, Carrier CS, Sautter M, McLeod R. Maternal serologic screening to prevent congenital toxoplasmosis: a decision-analytic economic model. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2011 Sep; 5(9):e1333. View in: PubMed

  42. Olariu TR, Remington JS, McLeod R, Alam A, Montoya JG. Severe congenital toxoplasmosis in the United States: clinical and serologic findings in untreated infants. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2011 Dec; 30(12):1056-61. View in: PubMed

  43. Hill D, Coss C, Dubey JP, Wroblewski K, Sautter M, Hosten T, Muñoz-Zanzi C, Mui E, Withers S, Boyer K, Hermes G, Coyne J, Jagdis F, Burnett A, McLeod P, Morton H, Robinson D, McLeod R. Identification of a sporozoite-specific antigen from Toxoplasma gondii. J Parasitol. 2011 Apr; 97(2):328-37. View in: PubMed

  44. Delair E, Latkany P, Noble AG, Rabiah P, McLeod R, Brézin A. Clinical manifestations of ocular toxoplasmosis. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2011 Apr; 19(2):91-102. View in: PubMed

  45. Kortagere S, Mui E, McLeod R, Welsh WJ. Rapid discovery of inhibitors of Toxoplasma gondii using hybrid structure-based computational approach. J Comput Aided Mol Des. 2011 May; 25(5):403-11. View in: PubMed

  46. Cong H, Mui EJ, Witola WH, Sidney J, Alexander J, Sette A, Maewal A, McLeod R. Human immunome, bioinformatic analyses using HLA supermotifs and the parasite genome, binding assays, studies of human T cell responses, and immunization of HLA-A*1101 transgenic mice including novel adjuvants provide a foundation for HLA-A03 restricted CD8+T cell epitope based, adjuvanted vaccine protective against Toxoplasma gondii. Immunome Res. 2010 Dec 03; 6:12. View in: PubMed

  47. Hutson SL, Mui E, Kinsley K, Witola WH, Behnke MS, El Bissati K, Muench SP, Rohrman B, Liu SR, Wollmann R, Ogata Y, Sarkeshik A, Yates JR, McLeod R. T. gondii RP promoters & knockdown reveal molecular pathways associated with proliferation and cell-cycle arrest. PLoS One. 2010 Nov 22; 5(11):e14057. View in: PubMed

  48. Witola WH, Mui E, Hargrave A, Liu S, Hypolite M, Montpetit A, Cavailles P, Bisanz C, Cesbron-Delauw MF, Fournié GJ, McLeod R. NALP1 influences susceptibility to human congenital toxoplasmosis, proinflammatory cytokine response, and fate of Toxoplasma gondii-infected monocytic cells. Infect Immun. 2011 Feb; 79(2):756-66. View in: PubMed

  49. Cong H, Mui EJ, Witola WH, Sidney J, Alexander J, Sette A, Maewal A, McLeod R. Towards an immunosense vaccine to prevent toxoplasmosis: protective Toxoplasma gondii epitopes restricted by HLA-A*0201. Vaccine. 2011 Jan 17; 29(4):754-62. View in: PubMed

  50. Tipparaju SK, Muench SP, Mui EJ, Ruzheinikov SN, Lu JZ, Hutson SL, Kirisits MJ, Prigge ST, Roberts CW, Henriquez FL, Kozikowski AP, Rice DW, McLeod RL. Identification and development of novel inhibitors of Toxoplasma gondii enoyl reductase. J Med Chem. 2010 Sep 09; 53(17):6287-300. View in: PubMed

  51. Henriquez FL, Woods S, Cong H, McLeod R, Roberts CW. Immunogenetics of Toxoplasma gondii informs vaccine design. Trends Parasitol. 2010 Nov; 26(11):550-5. View in: PubMed

  52. Lees MP, Fuller SJ, McLeod R, Boulter NR, Miller CM, Zakrzewski AM, Mui EJ, Witola WH, Coyne JJ, Hargrave AC, Jamieson SE, Blackwell JM, Wiley JS, Smith NC. P2X7 receptor-mediated killing of an intracellular parasite, Toxoplasma gondii, by human and murine macrophages. J Immunol. 2010 Jun 15; 184(12):7040-6. View in: PubMed

  53. Tan TG, Mui E, Cong H, Witola WH, Montpetit A, Muench SP, Sidney J, Alexander J, Sette A, Grigg ME, Maewal A, McLeod R. Identification of T. gondii epitopes, adjuvants, and host genetic factors that influence protection of mice and humans. Vaccine. 2010 May 21; 28(23):3977-89. View in: PubMed

  54. McLeod R, Kieffer F, Sautter M, Hosten T, Pelloux H. Why prevent, diagnose and treat congenital toxoplasmosis? Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009 Mar; 104(2):320-44. View in: PubMed

  55. Jamieson SE, Cordell H, Petersen E, McLeod R, Gilbert RE, Blackwell JM. Host genetic and epigenetic factors in toxoplasmosis. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz. 2009 Mar; 104(2):162-9. View in: PubMed

  56. Hermes G, Ajioka JW, Kelly KA, Mui E, Roberts F, Kasza K, Mayr T, Kirisits MJ, Wollmann R, Ferguson DJ, Roberts CW, Hwang JH, Trendler T, Kennan RP, Suzuki Y, Reardon C, Hickey WF, Chen L, McLeod R. Neurological and behavioral abnormalities, ventricular dilatation, altered cellular functions, inflammation, and neuronal injury in brains of mice due to common, persistent, parasitic infection. J Neuroinflammation. 2008 Oct 23; 5:48. View in: PubMed

  57. Benevento JD, Jager RD, Noble AG, Latkany P, Mieler WF, Sautter M, Meyers S, Mets M, Grassi MA, Rabiah P, Boyer K, Swisher C, McLeod R. Toxoplasmosis-associated neovascular lesions treated successfully with ranibizumab and antiparasitic therapy. Arch Ophthalmol. 2008 Aug; 126(8):1152-6. View in: PubMed

  58. Phan L, Kasza K, Jalbrzikowski J, Noble AG, Latkany P, Kuo A, Mieler W, Meyers S, Rabiah P, Boyer K, Swisher C, Mets M, Roizen N, Cezar S, Sautter M, Remington J, Meier P, McLeod R. Longitudinal study of new eye lesions in children with toxoplasmosis who were not treated during the first year of life. Am J Ophthalmol. 2008 Sep; 146(3):375-384. View in: PubMed

  59. Jamieson SE, de Roubaix LA, Cortina-Borja M, Tan HK, Mui EJ, Cordell HJ, Kirisits MJ, Miller EN, Peacock CS, Hargrave AC, Coyne JJ, Boyer K, Bessieres MH, Buffolano W, Ferret N, Franck J, Kieffer F, Meier P, Nowakowska DE, Paul M, Peyron F, Stray-Pedersen B, Prusa AR, Thulliez P, Wallon M, Petersen E, McLeod R, Gilbert RE, Blackwell JM. Genetic and epigenetic factors at COL2A1 and ABCA4 influence clinical outcome in congenital toxoplasmosis. PLoS One. 2008 Jun 04; 3(6):e2285. View in: PubMed

  60. Mui EJ, Schiehser GA, Milhous WK, Hsu H, Roberts CW, Kirisits M, Muench S, Rice D, Dubey JP, Fowble JW, Rathod PK, Queener SF, Liu SR, Jacobus DP, McLeod R. Novel triazine JPC-2067-B inhibits Toxoplasma gondii in vitro and in vivo. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2008 Mar 05; 2(3):e190. View in: PubMed

  61. Botté C, Saïdani N, Mondragon R, Mondragón M, Isaac G, Mui E, McLeod R, Dubremetz JF, Vial H, Welti R, Cesbron-Delauw MF, Mercier C, Maréchal E. Subcellular localization and dynamics of a digalactolipid-like epitope in Toxoplasma gondii. J Lipid Res. 2008 Apr; 49(4):746-62. View in: PubMed

  62. Arun V, Noble AG, Latkany P, Troia RN, Jalbrzikowski J, Kasza K, Karrison T, Cezar S, Sautter M, Greenwald MJ, Mieler W, Mets MB, Alam A, Boyer K, Swisher CN, Roizen N, Rabiah P, Del Monte MA, McLeod R. Cataracts in congenital toxoplasmosis. J AAPOS. 2007 Dec; 11(6):551-4. View in: PubMed

  63. Welti R, Mui E, Sparks A, Wernimont S, Isaac G, Kirisits M, Roth M, Roberts CW, Botté C, Maréchal E, McLeod R. Lipidomic analysis of Toxoplasma gondii reveals unusual polar lipids. Biochemistry. 2007 Dec 04; 46(48):13882-90. View in: PubMed

  64. Phan L, Kasza K, Jalbrzikowski J, Noble AG, Latkany P, Kuo A, Mieler W, Meyers S, Rabiah P, Boyer K, Swisher C, Mets M, Roizen N, Cezar S, Remington J, Meier P, McLeod R. Longitudinal study of new eye lesions in treated congenital toxoplasmosis. Ophthalmology. 2008 Mar; 115(3):553-559.e8. View in: PubMed

  65. Muench SP, Prigge ST, McLeod R, Rafferty JB, Kirisits MJ, Roberts CW, Mui EJ, Rice DW. Studies of Toxoplasma gondii and Plasmodium falciparum enoyl acyl carrier protein reductase and implications for the development of antiparasitic agents. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2007 Mar; 63(Pt 3):328-38. View in: PubMed

  66. Richards TA, Dacks JB, Campbell SA, Blanchard JL, Foster PG, McLeod R, Roberts CW. Evolutionary origins of the eukaryotic shikimate pathway: gene fusions, horizontal gene transfer, and endosymbiotic replacements. Eukaryot Cell. 2006 Sep; 5(9):1517-31. View in: PubMed

  67. Roizen N, Kasza K, Karrison T, Mets M, Noble AG, Boyer K, Swisher C, Meier P, Remington J, Jalbrzikowski J, McLeod R, Kipp M, Rabiah P, Chamot D, Estes R, Cezar S, Mack D, Pfiffner L, Stein M, Danis B, Patel D, Hopkins J, Holfels E, Stein L, Withers S, Cameron A, Perkins J, Heydemann P. Impact of visual impairment on measures of cognitive function for children with congenital toxoplasmosis: implications for compensatory intervention strategies. Pediatrics. 2006 Aug; 118(2):e379-90. View in: PubMed

  68. Muench SP, Prigge ST, Zhu L, Kirisits MJ, Roberts CW, Wernimont S, McLeod R, Rice DW. Expression, purification and preliminary crystallographic analysis of the Toxoplasma gondii enoyl reductase. Acta Crystallogr Sect F Struct Biol Cryst Commun. 2006 Jun 01; 62(Pt 6):604-6. View in: PubMed

  69. Kennedy ED, Rothwell DM, Cohen Z, McLeod RS. Increased experience and surgical technique lead to improved outcome after ileal pouch-anal anastomosis: a population-based study. Dis Colon Rectum. 2006 Jul; 49(7):958-65. View in: PubMed

  70. McLeod R, Boyer K, Karrison T, Kasza K, Swisher C, Roizen N, Jalbrzikowski J, Remington J, Heydemann P, Noble AG, Mets M, Holfels E, Withers S, Latkany P, Meier P. Outcome of treatment for congenital toxoplasmosis, 1981-2004: the National Collaborative Chicago-Based, Congenital Toxoplasmosis Study. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 May 15; 42(10):1383-94. View in: PubMed

  71. McLeod R, Khan AR, Noble GA, Latkany P, Jalbrzikowski J, Boyer K. Severe sulfadiazine hypersensitivity in a child with reactivated congenital toxoplasmic chorioretinitis. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2006 Mar; 25(3):270-2. View in: PubMed

  72. Mui EJ, Jacobus D, Milhous WK, Schiehser G, Hsu H, Roberts CW, Kirisits MJ, McLeod R. Triazine Inhibits Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoites in vitro and in vivo. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2005 Aug; 49(8):3463-7. View in: PubMed

  73. Boyer KM, Holfels E, Roizen N, Swisher C, Mack D, Remington J, Withers S, Meier P, McLeod R. Risk factors for Toxoplasma gondii infection in mothers of infants with congenital toxoplasmosis: Implications for prenatal management and screening. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Feb; 192(2):564-71. View in: PubMed

  74. Henriquez FL, Richards TA, Roberts F, McLeod R, Roberts CW. The unusual mitochondrial compartment of Cryptosporidium parvum. Trends Parasitol. 2005 Feb; 21(2):68-74. View in: PubMed

  75. Roberts CW, Roberts F, Henriquez FL, Akiyoshi D, Samuel BU, Richards TA, Milhous W, Kyle D, McIntosh L, Hill GC, Chaudhuri M, Tzipori S, McLeod R. Evidence for mitochondrial-derived alternative oxidase in the apicomplexan parasite Cryptosporidium parvum: a potential anti-microbial agent target. Int J Parasitol. 2004 Mar 09; 34(3):297-308. View in: PubMed

  76. Samuel BU, Hearn B, Mack D, Wender P, Rothbard J, Kirisits MJ, Mui E, Wernimont S, Roberts CW, Muench SP, Rice DW, Prigge ST, Law AB, McLeod R. Delivery of antimicrobials into parasites. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Nov 25; 100(24):14281-6. View in: PubMed

  77. Muench SP, Rafferty JB, McLeod R, Rice DW, Prigge ST. Expression, purification and crystallization of the Plasmodium falciparum enoyl reductase. Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr. 2003 Jul; 59(Pt 7):1246-8. View in: PubMed

  78. Brézin AP, Thulliez P, Couvreur J, Nobré R, Mcleod R, Mets MB. Ophthalmic outcomes after prenatal and postnatal treatment of congenital toxoplasmosis. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003 Jun; 135(6):779-84. View in: PubMed

  79. Johnson JJ, Roberts CW, Pope C, Roberts F, Kirisits MJ, Estes R, Mui E, Krieger T, Brown CR, Forman J, McLeod R. In vitro correlates of Ld-restricted resistance to toxoplasmic encephalitis and their critical dependence on parasite strain. J Immunol. 2002 Jul 15; 169(2):966-73. View in: PubMed

  80. Lyons RE, McLeod R, Roberts CW. Toxoplasma gondii tachyzoite-bradyzoite interconversion. Trends Parasitol. 2002 May; 18(5):198-201. View in: PubMed

  81. Roberts CW, Roberts F, Lyons RE, Kirisits MJ, Mui EJ, Finnerty J, Johnson JJ, Ferguson DJ, Coggins JR, Krell T, Coombs GH, Milhous WK, Kyle DE, Tzipori S, Barnwell J, Dame JB, Carlton J, McLeod R. The shikimate pathway and its branches in apicomplexan parasites. J Infect Dis. 2002 Feb 15; 185 Suppl 1:S25-36. View in: PubMed

  82. Johnson J, Suzuki Y, Mack D, Mui E, Estes R, David C, Skamene E, Forman J, McLeod R. Genetic analysis of influences on survival following Toxoplasma gondii infection. Int J Parasitol. 2002 Feb; 32(2):179-85. View in: PubMed

  83. Rioux JD, Daly MJ, Silverberg MS, Lindblad K, Steinhart H, Cohen Z, Delmonte T, Kocher K, Miller K, Guschwan S, Kulbokas EJ, O'Leary S, Winchester E, Dewar K, Green T, Stone V, Chow C, Cohen A, Langelier D, Lapointe G, Gaudet D, Faith J, Branco N, Bull SB, McLeod RS, Griffiths AM, Bitton A, Greenberg GR, Lander ES, Siminovitch KA, Hudson TJ. Genetic variation in the 5q31 cytokine gene cluster confers susceptibility to Crohn disease. Nat Genet. 2001 Oct; 29(2):223-8. View in: PubMed

  84. Thompson-Fawcett MW, Marcus V, Redston M, Cohen Z, McLeod RS. Risk of dysplasia in long-term ileal pouches and pouches with chronic pouchitis. Gastroenterology. 2001 Aug; 121(2):275-81. View in: PubMed

  85. McLeod R, Muench SP, Rafferty JB, Kyle DE, Mui EJ, Kirisits MJ, Mack DG, Roberts CW, Samuel BU, Lyons RE, Dorris M, Milhous WK, Rice DW. Triclosan inhibits the growth of Plasmodium falciparum and Toxoplasma gondii by inhibition of apicomplexan Fab I. Int J Parasitol. 2001 Feb; 31(2):109-13. View in: PubMed

  86. Inoue YZ, Frassica FJ, Sim FH, Unni KK, Petersen IA, McLeod RA. Clinicopathologic features and treatment of postirradiation sarcoma of bone and soft tissue. J Surg Oncol. 2000 Sep; 75(1):42-50. View in: PubMed

  87. McLeod R, Boyer K, Roizen N, Stein L, Swisher C, Holfels E, Hopkins J, Mack D, Karrison T, Patel D, Pfiffner L, Remington J, Withers S, Meyers S, Aitchison V, Mets M, Rabiah P, Meier P. The child with congenital toxoplasmosis. Curr Clin Top Infect Dis. 2000; 20:189-208. View in: PubMed

  88. Kirisits MJ, Mui E, McLeod R. Measurement of the efficacy of vaccines and antimicrobial therapy against infection with Toxoplasma gondii. Int J Parasitol. 2000 Feb; 30(2):149-55. View in: PubMed

  89. Roberts F, Roberts CW, Ferguson DJ, McLeod R. Inhibition of nitric oxide production exacerbates chronic ocular toxoplasmosis. Parasite Immunol. 2000 Jan; 22(1):1-5. View in: PubMed

  90. Mack DG, Johnson JJ, Roberts F, Roberts CW, Estes RG, David C, Grumet FC, McLeod R. HLA-class II genes modify outcome of Toxoplasma gondii infection. Int J Parasitol. 1999 Sep; 29(9):1351-8. View in: PubMed

  91. Zuther E, Johnson JJ, Haselkorn R, McLeod R, Gornicki P. Growth of Toxoplasma gondii is inhibited by aryloxyphenoxypropionate herbicides targeting acetyl-CoA carboxylase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Nov 09; 96(23):13387-92. View in: PubMed

  92. McLeod RS, Wolff BG, Steinhart AH, Carryer PW, O'Rourke K, Andrews DF, Blair JE, Cangemi JR, Cohen Z, Cullen JB, Chaytor RG, Greenberg GR, Jaffer NM, Jeejeebhoy KN, MacCarty RL, Ready RL, Weiland LH. Risk and significance of endoscopic/radiological evidence of recurrent Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology. 1997 Dec; 113(6):1823-7. View in: PubMed

  93. Vogel N, Kirisits M, Michael E, Bach H, Hostetter M, Boyer K, Simpson R, Holfels E, Hopkins J, Mack D, Mets MB, Swisher CN, Patel D, Roizen N, Stein L, Stein M, Withers S, Mui E, Egwuagu C, Remington J, Dorfman R, McLeod R. Congenital toxoplasmosis transmitted from an immunologically competent mother infected before conception. Clin Infect Dis. 1996 Nov; 23(5):1055-60. View in: PubMed

  94. McLeod RS. Costs of major parasites to the Australian livestock industries. Int J Parasitol. 1995 Nov; 25(11):1363-7. View in: PubMed

  95. McLeod RS, Zhao Y, Selby SL, Westerlund J, Yao Z. Carboxyl-terminal truncation impairs lipid recruitment by apolipoprotein B100 but does not affect secretion of the truncated apolipoprotein B-containing lipoproteins. J Biol Chem. 1994 Jan 28; 269(4):2852-62. View in: PubMed

  96. Park YK, Unni KK, McLeod RA, Pritchard DJ. Osteofibrous dysplasia: clinicopathologic study of 80 cases. Hum Pathol. 1993 Dec; 24(12):1339-47. View in: PubMed

  97. Brown CR, David CS, Khare SJ, McLeod R. Effects of human class I transgenes on Toxoplasma gondii cyst formation. J Immunol. 1994 May 01; 152(9):4537-41. View in: PubMed

  98. McLeod RS, Robbins C, Burns A, Yao Z, Pritchard PH. Deletion of the propeptide of apolipoprotein A-I impairs exit of nascent apolipoprotein A-I from the endoplasmic reticulum. Biochem J. 1994 Sep 15; 302 ( Pt 3):641-8. View in: PubMed

  99. McLeod RS, Wolff BG, Steinhart AH, Carryer PW, O'Rourke K, Andrews DF, Blair JE, Cangemi JR, Cohen Z, Cullen JB, et al. Prophylactic mesalamine treatment decreases postoperative recurrence of Crohn's disease. Gastroenterology. 1995 Aug; 109(2):404-13. View in: PubMed

  100. Serra J, Cohen Z, McLeod RS. Natural history of strictureplasty in Crohn's disease: 9-year experience. Can J Surg. 1995 Dec; 38(6):481-5. View in: PubMed

  101. Peterson HA, Klassen RA, McLeod RA, Hoffman AD. The use of computerised tomography in dislocation of the hip and femoral neck anteversion in children. J Bone Joint Surg Br. 1981 Aug; 63-B(2):198-208. View in: PubMed

  102. Levine DZ, McLeod RA, Raman S. Steroid modulation of response of plasma bicarbonate concentration to NH4Cl loading: gamma distribution analysis. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1983 Jun; 61(6):641-6. View in: PubMed

  103. Nojima T, Unni KK, McLeod RA, Pritchard DJ. Periosteal chondroma and periosteal chondrosarcoma. Am J Surg Pathol. 1985 Sep; 9(9):666-77. View in: PubMed

  104. Zimmer WD, Berquist TH, McLeod RA, Sim FH, Pritchard DJ, Shives TC, Wold LE, May GR. Magnetic resonance imaging of osteosarcomas. Comparison with computed tomography. Clin Orthop Relat Res. 1986 Jul; (208):289-99. View in: PubMed

  105. Brown CR, McLeod R. Class I MHC genes and CD8+ T cells determine cyst number in Toxoplasma gondii infection. J Immunol. 1990 Nov 15; 145(10):3438-41. View in: PubMed

  106. McLeod RS, Churchill DN, Lock AM, Vanderburgh S, Cohen Z. Quality of life of patients with ulcerative colitis preoperatively and postoperatively. Gastroenterology. 1991 Nov; 101(5):1307-13. View in: PubMed

  107. Vergel De Dios AM, Bond JR, Shives TC, McLeod RA, Unni KK. Aneurysmal bone cyst. A clinicopathologic study of 238 cases. Cancer. 1992 Jun 15; 69(12):2921-31. View in: PubMed

  108. Levine DZ, Byers MK, McLeod RA, Luisello JA, Raman S. Loop of Henle bicarbonate accumulation in vivo in the rat. J Clin Invest. 1979 Jan; 63(1):59-66. View in: PubMed

  109. McLeod RA, Dahlin DC, Beabout JW. The spectrum of osteoblastoma. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1976 Feb; 126(2):321-5. View in: PubMed