Anita S. Chong

Research Summary
My lab has had a long-standing interest in understanding the basis of immunological tolerance and humoral immunity following allogeneic transplantation. We have been collaborating extensively with Dr. Marisa Alegre in studying how infections prevent the induction of transplantation tolerance or destabilize established tolerance, and understanding the fundamental mechanisms of robust transplantation tolerance. We recently have developed new approaches to track a defined population of endogenous allospecific T (CD4+effectors (Th1 and Tfh), CD4+Tregs and CD8 effector) and B cells (Class I and Class II reactive), and are now asking how each of these subsets of cells behave under conditions of rejection, memory/sensitization and tolerance, with the goal of identifying new biomarkers of tolerance and rejection. We also actively investigating the behavior of memory alloreactive B cells in the setting of transplantation, and in identifying how these cells differ from naïve B cells, with the goal of identifying immunosuppressive and tolerance inducing strategies to control this clinically important subset of cells. We are conducting these studies in experimental rodent models, and also testing our findings in humans. These studies are performed in collaboration with Dr. Roger Sciammas at UCDavis, and the clinical transplant faculty at the University of Chicago and Ohio State University. In addition, we have stretched our research into the prevention of infections through vaccination, with the long-term goal of using this strategy as an indirect but cost-effective means of stabilizing tolerance. Towards this goal, my lab has been collaborating with Dr. Chris Montgomery, a physician scientist in the Department of Pediatrics, to identify sub-unit vaccine candidates and to investigate the immunobiology of protection from Staphylococcus aureus skin infections. My lab also has a strong program of collaborative research with Dr. Joel Collier, a bioengineer at Duke University, to develop of nanoparticulate adjuvant-free vaccines that can elicit protective immune responses with minimal inflammation. Such a vaccine that elicits minimal inflammation may be ideal for tolerant patients, as we now appreciate that inflammation can destabilize established tolerance.
  • University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, Research Associate
  • Tufts University , Boston, MA, Post-Doctoral Fellow
  • Australian National University, Australia, PhD
  • University of Malaya, Malaysia, BS (Hons)
Biosciences Graduate Program Association
  1. Navigating the Dobbs versus Jackson America for Patients with CKD and Kidney Transplants. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2023 Feb 01; 34(2):201-204. View in: PubMed

  2. Sensitization in transplantation: Assessment of Risk 2022 Working Group Meeting Report. Am J Transplant. 2023 01; 23(1):133-149. View in: PubMed

  3. Beyond Adaptive Alloreactivity: Contribution of Innate B Cells to Allograft Inflammation and Rejection. Transplantation. 2023 01 01; 107(1):98-104. View in: PubMed

  4. Transcriptionally Distinct B Cells Infiltrate Allografts After Kidney Transplantation. Transplantation. 2023 02 01; 107(2):e47-e57. View in: PubMed

  5. Sugar-coated Antigens Generated During Pregnancy Mediate Fetomaternal Tolerance. Transplantation. 2022 11 01; 106(11):2099-2100. View in: PubMed

  6. A multi-faceted approach to sex and gender equity in solid organ transplantation: The Women in Transplantation Initiative of The Transplantation Society. Front Immunol. 2022; 13:1006855. View in: PubMed

  7. Joining Forces in Basic Science: ITS Meeting 2.0. Transpl Int. 2022; 35:10843. View in: PubMed

  8. Reduced Satb1 expression predisposes CD4+ T conventional cells to Treg suppression and promotes transplant survival. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2022 10 04; 119(40):e2205062119. View in: PubMed

  9. Tissue specificity drives protective immunity against Staphylococcus aureus infection. Front Immunol. 2022; 13:795792. View in: PubMed

  10. From bench to bedside: reversing established antibody responses and desensitization. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2022 10 01; 27(5):376-384. View in: PubMed

  11. Host-versus-commensal immune responses participate in the rejection of colonized solid organ transplants. J Clin Invest. 2022 09 01; 132(17). View in: PubMed

  12. Linked sensitization by memory CD4+ T cells prevents costimulation blockade-induced transplantation tolerance. JCI Insight. 2022 06 08; 7(11). View in: PubMed

  13. Oral alloantigen exposure promotes donor-specific tolerance in a mouse model of minor-mismatched skin transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2022 10; 22(10):2348-2359. View in: PubMed

  14. Semiallogeneic Pregnancy: A Paradigm Change for T-cell Transplantation Tolerance. Transplantation. 2022 06 01; 106(6):1098-1100. View in: PubMed

  15. The Women of FOCIS: Promoting Equality and Inclusiveness in a Professional Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies. Front Immunol. 2022; 13:816535. View in: PubMed

  16. Toward an understanding of allogeneic conflict in pregnancy and transplantation. J Exp Med. 2022 05 02; 219(5). View in: PubMed

  17. Incorporation of Sex and Gender Guidelines Into Transplantation Literature. Transplantation. 2021 11 01; 105(11):e261-e262. View in: PubMed

  18. Regulation of Alloantibody Responses. Front Cell Dev Biol. 2021; 9:706171. View in: PubMed

  19. Innate-like self-reactive B cells infiltrate human renal allografts during transplant rejection. Nat Commun. 2021 07 16; 12(1):4372. View in: PubMed

  20. Impaired T-Lymphocyte Responses During Childhood Staphylococcus aureus Infection. J Infect Dis. 2022 01 05; 225(1):177-185. View in: PubMed

  21. Sex matters: COVID-19 in kidney transplantation. Kidney Int. 2021 03; 99(3):555-558. View in: PubMed

  22. Pregnancy-induced humoral sensitization overrides T cell tolerance to fetus-matched allografts in mice. J Clin Invest. 2021 01 04; 131(1). View in: PubMed

  23. Adjuvant-free nanofiber vaccine induces in situ lung dendritic cell activation and TH17 responses. Sci Adv. 2020 08; 6(32):eaba0995. View in: PubMed

  24. The Impact of COVID-19 on the State of Clinical and Laboratory Research Globally in Transplantation in May 2020. Transplantation. 2020 11; 104(11):2252-2257. View in: PubMed

  25. Mechanisms of organ transplant injury mediated by B cells and antibodies: Implications for antibody-mediated rejection. Am J Transplant. 2020 06; 20 Suppl 4:23-32. View in: PubMed

  26. Desensitizing highly sensitized heart transplant candidates with the combination of belatacept and proteasome inhibition. Am J Transplant. 2020 12; 20(12):3620-3630. View in: PubMed

  27. Transplantation tolerance modifies donor-specific B cell fate to suppress de novo alloreactive B cells. J Clin Invest. 2020 07 01; 130(7):3453-3466. View in: PubMed

  28. The First ITS Meeting. Transplantation. 2020 06; 104(6):1114-1116. View in: PubMed

  29. Sensitization in transplantation: Assessment of risk (STAR) 2019 Working Group Meeting Report. Am J Transplant. 2020 10; 20(10):2652-2668. View in: PubMed

  30. Inhibition of protective immunity against Staphylococcus aureus infection by MHC-restricted immunodominance is overcome by vaccination. Sci Adv. 2020 04; 6(14):eaaw7713. View in: PubMed

  31. Reversing donor-specific antibody responses and antibody-mediated rejection with bortezomib and belatacept in mice and kidney transplant recipients. Am J Transplant. 2020 10; 20(10):2675-2685. View in: PubMed

  32. Enabling sublingual peptide immunization with molecular self-assemblies. Biomaterials. 2020 05; 241:119903. View in: PubMed

  33. B cells as antigen-presenting cells in transplantation rejection and tolerance. Cell Immunol. 2020 03; 349:104061. View in: PubMed

  34. The First International Transplant Science (ITS) Meeting. Transplantation. 2020 Jan 20. View in: PubMed

  35. Recommended Treatment for Antibody-mediated Rejection After Kidney Transplantation: The 2019 Expert Consensus From the Transplantion Society Working Group. Transplantation. 2020 05; 104(5):911-922. View in: PubMed

  36. Resilience of T cell-intrinsic dysfunction in transplantation tolerance. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2019 11 19; 116(47):23682-23690. View in: PubMed

  37. ITS finally here! The first International Transplant Science meeting jointly organized by AST, ESOT, and TTS. Transplantation. 2019 Oct; 103(10):1975-1976. View in: PubMed

  38. B Cell Recruitment Follows Kidney Injury and Maladaptive Repair. Transplantation. 2019 08; 103(8):1527-1529. View in: PubMed

  39. Skin-restricted commensal colonization accelerates skin graft rejection. JCI Insight. 2019 07 16; 5. View in: PubMed

  40. Desensitization in the Era of Precision Medicine: Moving From the Bench to Bedside. Transplantation. 2019 08; 103(8):1574-1581. View in: PubMed

  41. Fifty Shades of Tolerance: Beyond a Binary Tolerant/Non-Tolerant Paradigm. Curr Transplant Rep. 2017 Dec; 4(4):262-269. View in: PubMed

  42. Urinary nanosensors of early transplant rejection. Nat Biomed Eng. 2019 04; 3(4):251-252. View in: PubMed

  43. Outstanding questions in transplantation: B cells, alloantibodies, and humoral rejection. Am J Transplant. 2019 08; 19(8):2155-2163. View in: PubMed

  44. The pursuit of transplantation tolerance: new mechanistic insights. Cell Mol Immunol. 2019 04; 16(4):324-333. View in: PubMed

  45. An optimized protocol to quantify signaling in human transitional B cells by phospho flow cytometry. J Immunol Methods. 2018 12; 463:112-121. View in: PubMed

  46. New insights into the development of B cell responses: Implications for solid organ transplantation. Hum Immunol. 2019 Jun; 80(6):378-384. View in: PubMed

  47. Distinct Graft-Specific TCR Avidity Profiles during Acute Rejection and Tolerance. Cell Rep. 2018 08 21; 24(8):2112-2126. View in: PubMed

  48. Equal Expansion of Endogenous Transplant-Specific Regulatory T Cell and Recruitment Into the Allograft During Rejection and Tolerance. Front Immunol. 2018; 9:1385. View in: PubMed

  49. Intranasal delivery of adjuvant-free peptide nanofibers elicits resident CD8+ T cell responses. J Control Release. 2018 07 28; 282:120-130. View in: PubMed

  50. MyD88 in antigen-presenting cells is not required for CD4+ T-cell responses during peptide nanofiber vaccination. Medchemcomm. 2018; 9(1):138-148. View in: PubMed

  51. Heterogeneity of memory B cells. Am J Transplant. 2018 04; 18(4):779-784. View in: PubMed

  52. Active immunotherapy for TNF-mediated inflammation using self-assembled peptide nanofibers. Biomaterials. 2017 Dec; 149:1-11. View in: PubMed

  53. Successful Treatment of T Cell-Mediated Acute Rejection with Delayed CTLA4-Ig in Mice. Front Immunol. 2017; 8:1169. View in: PubMed

  54. The IRF4 Gene Regulatory Module Functions as a Read-Write Integrator to Dynamically Coordinate T?Helper Cell Fate. Immunity. 2017 09 19; 47(3):481-497.e7. View in: PubMed

  55. Alone Again, Naturally: B Cells Encountering Antigen Without T cells. Transplantation. 2017 09; 101(9):1956-1958. View in: PubMed

  56. Belatacept Does Not Inhibit Follicular T Cell-Dependent B-Cell Differentiation in Kidney Transplantation. Front Immunol. 2017; 8:641. View in: PubMed

  57. Evolving Approaches in the Identification of Allograft-Reactive T and B Cells in Mice and Humans. Transplantation. 2017 11; 101(11):2671-2681. View in: PubMed

  58. CTLA4-Ig in combination with FTY720 promotes allograft survival in sensitized recipients. JCI Insight. 2017 May 04; 2(9). View in: PubMed

  59. Transplantation tolerance: don't forget about the B cells. Clin Exp Immunol. 2017 08; 189(2):171-180. View in: PubMed

  60. Transplantation tolerance after allograft rejection. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2017 Feb; 22(1):64-70. View in: PubMed

  61. Virtual Global Transplant Laboratory Standard Operating Protocol for Donor Alloantigen-specific Interferon-gamma ELISPOT Assay. Transplant Direct. 2016 Nov; 2(11):e111. View in: PubMed

  62. From Pipe Dream to Donor-Specific PC Elimination: Novel Ways to Target Alloantibodies. Transplantation. 2016 11; 100(11):2238-2239. View in: PubMed

  63. Self-Antigen-Driven Thymic B Cell Class Switching Promotes T Cell Central Tolerance. Cell Rep. 2016 10 04; 17(2):387-398. View in: PubMed

  64. Impact of Staphylococcus aureus USA300 Colonization and Skin Infections on Systemic Immune Responses in Humans. J Immunol. 2016 08 15; 197(4):1118-26. View in: PubMed

  65. Tracing Donor-MHC Class II Reactive B cells in Mouse Cardiac Transplantation: Delayed CTLA4-Ig Treatment Prevents Memory Alloreactive B-Cell Generation. Transplantation. 2016 08; 100(8):1683-91. View in: PubMed

  66. The composition of the microbiota modulates allograft rejection. J Clin Invest. 2016 07 01; 126(7):2736-44. View in: PubMed

  67. Erosion of Transplantation Tolerance After Infection. Am J Transplant. 2017 01; 17(1):81-90. View in: PubMed

  68. Tracking of TCR-Transgenic T Cells Reveals That Multiple Mechanisms Maintain Cardiac Transplant Tolerance in Mice. Am J Transplant. 2016 10; 16(10):2854-2864. View in: PubMed

  69. Adoptive Transfer of Tracer-Alloreactive CD4+ T Cell Receptor Transgenic T Cells Alters the Endogenous Immune Response to an Allograft. Am J Transplant. 2016 10; 16(10):2842-2853. View in: PubMed

  70. High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity Enhances Allograft Rejection. Transplantation. 2016 05; 100(5):1015-21. View in: PubMed

  71. Delayed Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-Associated Protein 4-Immunoglobulin Treatment Reverses Ongoing Alloantibody Responses and Rescues Allografts From Acute Rejection. Am J Transplant. 2016 08; 16(8):2312-23. View in: PubMed

  72. Importance of B Lymphocytes and the IgG-Binding Protein Sbi in Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection. Pathogens. 2016 Jan 27; 5(1). View in: PubMed

  73. Cutting Edge: CTLA-4Ig Inhibits Memory B Cell Responses and Promotes Allograft Survival in Sensitized Recipients. J Immunol. 2015 Nov 01; 195(9):4069-73. View in: PubMed

  74. Proteomic Identification of saeRS-Dependent Targets Critical for Protective Humoral Immunity against Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection. Infect Immun. 2015 Sep; 83(9):3712-21. View in: PubMed

  75. Spontaneous restoration of transplantation tolerance after acute rejection. Nat Commun. 2015 Jul 07; 6:7566. View in: PubMed

  76. Establishment of a global virtual laboratory for transplantation: a symposium report. Transplantation. 2015 Feb; 99(2):381-4. View in: PubMed

  77. The influence of the microbiota on the immune response to transplantation. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2015 Feb; 20(1):1-7. View in: PubMed

  78. Memory B cells in transplantation. Transplantation. 2015 Jan; 99(1):21-8. View in: PubMed

  79. Gut microbiota elicits a protective immune response against malaria transmission. Cell. 2014 Dec 04; 159(6):1277-89. View in: PubMed

  80. Transplantation: molecular phenotyping of T-cell-mediated rejection. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2014 12; 10(12):678-80. View in: PubMed

  81. New kid on the pretransplant block: IgG recognizing apoptotic cells. Am J Transplant. 2014 Jul; 14(7):1477-8. View in: PubMed

  82. Gradated assembly of multiple proteins into supramolecular nanomaterials. Nat Mater. 2014 Aug; 13(8):829-36. View in: PubMed

  83. Titrating T-cell epitopes within self-assembled vaccines optimizes CD4+ helper T cell and antibody outputs. Adv Healthc Mater. 2014 Nov; 3(11):1898-908. View in: PubMed

  84. Immune complex formation and in situ B-cell clonal expansion in human cerebral cavernous malformations. J Neuroimmunol. 2014 Jul 15; 272(1-2):67-75. View in: PubMed

  85. AST Cutting Edge of Transplantation 2013 Meeting Report: a comprehensive look at B cells and antibodies in transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2014 Mar; 14(3):524-30. View in: PubMed

  86. Mechanisms and consequences of injury and repair in older organ transplants. Transplantation. 2014 Jun 15; 97(11):1091-9. View in: PubMed

  87. Protective immunity against recurrent Staphylococcus aureus skin infection requires antibody and interleukin-17A. Infect Immun. 2014 May; 82(5):2125-34. View in: PubMed

  88. Transplantation tolerance and its outcome during infections and inflammation. Immunol Rev. 2014 Mar; 258(1):80-101. View in: PubMed

  89. Impact of immunosuppression on recall immune responses to influenza vaccination in stable renal transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2014 Apr 27; 97(8):846-53. View in: PubMed

  90. Lessons and limits of mouse models. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2013 Dec 01; 3(12):a015495. View in: PubMed

  91. The use of self-adjuvanting nanofiber vaccines to elicit high-affinity B cell responses to peptide antigens without inflammation. Biomaterials. 2013 Nov; 34(34):8776-85. View in: PubMed

  92. Microbes and allogeneic transplantation. Transplantation. 2014 Jan 15; 97(1):5-11. View in: PubMed

  93. Local inflammation exacerbates the severity of Staphylococcus aureus skin infection. PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e69508. View in: PubMed

  94. Reversing endogenous alloreactive B cell GC responses with anti-CD154 or CTLA-4Ig. Am J Transplant. 2013 Sep; 13(9):2280-92. View in: PubMed

  95. B cells assist allograft rejection in the deficiency of protein kinase c-theta. Transpl Int. 2013 Sep; 26(9):919-27. View in: PubMed

  96. Enhancing pancreatic Beta-cell regeneration in vivo with pioglitazone and alogliptin. PLoS One. 2013; 8(6):e65777. View in: PubMed

  97. Transcriptional regulation of germinal center B and plasma cell fates by dynamical control of IRF4. Immunity. 2013 May 23; 38(5):918-29. View in: PubMed

  98. A self-adjuvanting supramolecular vaccine carrying a folded protein antigen. Adv Healthc Mater. 2013 Aug; 2(8):1114-9. View in: PubMed

  99. Plasma cell densities and glomerular filtration rates predict renal allograft outcomes following acute rejection. Transpl Int. 2012 Oct; 25(10):1050-8. View in: PubMed

  100. Self-assembled peptide nanofibers raising durable antibody responses against a malaria epitope. Biomaterials. 2012 Sep; 33(27):6476-84. View in: PubMed

  101. The impact of infection and tissue damage in solid-organ transplantation. Nat Rev Immunol. 2012 May 25; 12(6):459-71. View in: PubMed

  102. Three Strikes and You're Cured. Sci Transl Med. 2012 May 09; 4(133):133fs12. View in: PubMed

  103. Modulating adaptive immune responses to peptide self-assemblies. ACS Nano. 2012 Feb 28; 6(2):1557-64. View in: PubMed

  104. "Tip-toeing" to an assay for transplantation tolerance? Am J Transplant. 2012 Mar; 12(3):519-20. View in: PubMed

  105. Matchmaking the B-cell signature of tolerance to regulatory B cells. Am J Transplant. 2011 Dec; 11(12):2555-60. View in: PubMed

  106. Experimental models of B cell tolerance in transplantation. Semin Immunol. 2012 Apr; 24(2):77-85. View in: PubMed

  107. IL-6 induced by Staphylococcus aureus infection prevents the induction of skin allograft acceptance in mice. Am J Transplant. 2011 May; 11(5):936-46. View in: PubMed

  108. Making a B-line for transplantation tolerance. Am J Transplant. 2011 Mar; 11(3):420-1. View in: PubMed

  109. Alloantibodies prevent the induction of transplantation tolerance by enhancing alloreactive T cell priming. J Immunol. 2011 Jan 01; 186(1):214-21. View in: PubMed

  110. Bacterial infections, alloimmunity, and transplantation tolerance. Transplant Rev (Orlando). 2011 Jan; 25(1):27-35. View in: PubMed

  111. Seeing is believing: how the MIP-luc mouse can advance the field of islet transplantation and ?-cell regeneration. Islets. 2010 Jul-Aug; 2(4):261-2. View in: PubMed

  112. Infection with the intracellular bacterium, Listeria monocytogenes, overrides established tolerance in a mouse cardiac allograft model. Am J Transplant. 2010 Jul; 10(7):1524-33. View in: PubMed

  113. Decreased percentage of CD4+FoxP3+ cells in bronchoalveolar lavage from lung transplant recipients correlates with development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Transplantation. 2010 Sep 15; 90(5):540-6. View in: PubMed

  114. Role of bacterial infections in allograft rejection. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2008 Mar; 4(2):281-93. View in: PubMed

  115. Glycemic control promotes pancreatic beta-cell regeneration in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. PLoS One. 2010 Jan 18; 5(1):e8749. View in: PubMed

  116. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in transplantation. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2009 06 01; 1(1):36-43. View in: PubMed

  117. Antagonistic effect of toll-like receptor signaling and bacterial infections on transplantation tolerance. Transplantation. 2009 May 15; 87(9 Suppl):S77-9. View in: PubMed

  118. TLR signals promote IL-6/IL-17-dependent transplant rejection. J Immunol. 2009 May 15; 182(10):6217-25. View in: PubMed

  119. Memory alloreactive B cells and alloantibodies prevent anti-CD154-mediated allograft acceptance. J Immunol. 2009 Feb 01; 182(3):1314-24. View in: PubMed

  120. Toll-like receptor signaling in transplantation. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2008 Aug; 13(4):358-65. View in: PubMed

  121. The multiple facets of toll-like receptors in transplantation biology. Transplantation. 2008 Jul 15; 86(1):1-9. View in: PubMed

  122. The Mll partial tandem duplication: differential, tissue-specific activity in the presence or absence of the wild-type allele. Blood. 2008 Sep 15; 112(6):2508-11. View in: PubMed

  123. CD4+ T cells are sufficient to elicit allograft rejection and major histocompatibility complex class I molecule is required to induce recurrent autoimmune diabetes after pancreas transplantation in mice. Transplantation. 2008 Apr 27; 85(8):1205-11. View in: PubMed

  124. Long-term control of alloreactive B cell responses by the suppression of T cell help. J Immunol. 2008 May 01; 180(9):6077-84. View in: PubMed

  125. Prevention of allograft tolerance by bacterial infection with Listeria monocytogenes. J Immunol. 2008 May 01; 180(9):5991-9. View in: PubMed

  126. Bioluminescence imaging visualizes activation of nuclear factor-kappaB in mouse cardiac transplantation. Transplantation. 2008 Mar 27; 85(6):903-10. View in: PubMed

  127. Cellular therapies for type 1 diabetes. Horm Metab Res. 2008 Feb; 40(2):147-54. View in: PubMed

  128. Hyperacute rejection by anti-Gal IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b is dependent on complement and Fc-gamma receptors. J Immunol. 2008 Jan 01; 180(1):261-8. View in: PubMed

  129. Expression of complement regulatory proteins in accommodated xenografts induced by anti-alpha-Gal IgG1 in a rat-to-mouse model. Am J Transplant. 2008 Jan; 8(1):32-40. View in: PubMed

  130. Peripheral deletion of mature alloreactive B cells induced by costimulation blockade. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jul 17; 104(29):12093-8. View in: PubMed

  131. American society of transplantation symposium on B cells in transplantation: harnessing humoral immunity from rodent models to clinical practice. Am J Transplant. 2007 Jun; 7(6):1464-70. View in: PubMed

  132. Recovery of islet beta-cell function in streptozotocin- induced diabetic mice: an indirect role for the spleen. Diabetes. 2006 Dec; 55(12):3256-63. View in: PubMed

  133. TLR engagement prevents transplantation tolerance. Am J Transplant. 2006 Oct; 6(10):2282-91. View in: PubMed

  134. Reversal of diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice without spleen cell-derived beta cell regeneration. Science. 2006 Mar 24; 311(5768):1774-5. View in: PubMed

  135. Concurrent antiviral and immunosuppressive activities of leflunomide in vivo. Am J Transplant. 2006 Jan; 6(1):69-75. View in: PubMed

  136. Liver ischemia contributes to early islet failure following intraportal transplantation: benefits of liver ischemic-preconditioning. Am J Transplant. 2006 Jan; 6(1):60-8. View in: PubMed

  137. Intratumor depletion of CD4+ cells unmasks tumor immunogenicity leading to the rejection of late-stage tumors. J Exp Med. 2005 Mar 07; 201(5):779-91. View in: PubMed

  138. Mechanistic study of malononitrileamide FK778 in cardiac transplantation and CMV infection in rats. Transplantation. 2005 Jan 15; 79(1):17-22. View in: PubMed

  139. Cutting edge: Cbl-b: one of the key molecules tuning CD28- and CTLA-4-mediated T cell costimulation. J Immunol. 2004 Dec 15; 173(12):7135-9. View in: PubMed

  140. A mouse model for studying intrahepatic islet transplantation. Transplantation. 2004 Aug 27; 78(4):615-8. View in: PubMed

  141. Cutting Edge: NK cells mediate IgG1-dependent hyperacute rejection of xenografts. J Immunol. 2004 Jun 15; 172(12):7235-8. View in: PubMed

  142. Evidence that tilapia islets do not express alpha-(1,3)gal: implications for islet xenotransplantation. Xenotransplantation. 2004 May; 11(3):276-83. View in: PubMed

  143. Mouse-heart grafts expressing an incompatible carbohydrate antigen. II. Transition from accommodation to tolerance. Transplantation. 2004 Feb 15; 77(3):366-73. View in: PubMed

  144. Skin graft survival in genetically identical cloned pigs. Cloning Stem Cells. 2003; 5(2):117-21. View in: PubMed

  145. The in vitro and in vivo effects of anti-galactose antibodies on endothelial cell activation and xenograft rejection. J Immunol. 2003 Feb 01; 170(3):1531-9. View in: PubMed

  146. IFN-gamma production is specifically regulated by IL-10 in mice made tolerant with anti-CD40 ligand antibody and intact active bone. J Immunol. 2003 Jan 15; 170(2):853-60. View in: PubMed

  147. Direct killing of xenograft cells by CD8+ T cells of discordant xenograft recipients. Transplantation. 2002 Dec 15; 74(11):1587-95. View in: PubMed

  148. Role of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the rejection of concordant pancreas xenografts. Transplantation. 2002 Nov 15; 74(9):1236-41. View in: PubMed

  149. Allograft tolerance induced by intact active bone co-transplantation and anti-CD40L monoclonal antibody therapy. Transplantation. 2002 Aug 15; 74(3):345-54. View in: PubMed

  150. Acute xenograft rejection mediated by antibodies produced independently of TH1/TH2 cytokine profiles. Am J Transplant. 2002 Jul; 2(6):526-34. View in: PubMed

  151. CTLA-41g in combination with anti-CD40L prolongs xenograft survival and inhibits anti-gal ab production in GT-Ko mice. Am J Transplant. 2002 Jan; 2(1):41-7. View in: PubMed

  152. Development and characterization of anti-Gal B cell receptor transgenic Gal-/- mice. Transplantation. 2002 May 27; 73(10):1549-57. View in: PubMed

  153. Intact active bone transplantation synergizes with anti-CD40 ligand therapy to induce B cell tolerance. J Immunol. 2002 May 15; 168(10):5352-8. View in: PubMed

  154. Experiences with leflunomide in solid organ transplantation. Transplantation. 2002 Feb 15; 73(3):358-66. View in: PubMed

  155. The structure of anti-Gal immunoglobulin genes in na?ve and stimulated Gal knockout mice. Transplantation. 2001 Dec 15; 72(11):1817-25. View in: PubMed

  156. Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases potentiates hemin toxicity in astrocyte cultures. J Neurochem. 2001 Nov; 79(3):545-55. View in: PubMed

  157. Onset of accumulation of PrPres in murine ME7 scrapie in relation to pathological and PrP immunohistochemical changes. J Comp Pathol. 2001 Jan; 124(1):20-8. View in: PubMed

  158. Lewis rat pancreas, but not cardiac xenografts, are resistant to anti-gal antibody mediated hyperacute rejection. Transplantation. 2001 May 27; 71(10):1385-9. View in: PubMed

  159. Combination of antilymphocyte globulin and leflunomide leads to superior grafts. Transplant Proc. 2001 Feb-Mar; 33(1-2):569. View in: PubMed

  160. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 by the experimental immunosuppressive agent leflunomide. Transplantation. 2001 Jan 15; 71(1):170-4. View in: PubMed

  161. A taste of honey. J Paediatr Child Health. 2000 Dec; 36(6):596-7. View in: PubMed

  162. Non-depleting anti-CD4, but not anti-CD8, antibody induces long-term survival of xenogeneic and allogeneic hearts in alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout (GT-Ko) mice. Xenotransplantation. 2000 Nov; 7(4):275-83. View in: PubMed

  163. Anti-galactose-alpha(1,3) galactose antibody production in alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase gene knockout mice after xeno and allo transplantation. Transpl Immunol. 2000 Jun; 8(2):129-37. View in: PubMed

  164. Nondepleting anti-CD4 but not anti-CD8 antibody induces long-term survival of xenogeneic and allogeneic hearts in alpha1, 3-galactosyl-transferase knock-out mice. Transplant Proc. 2000 Aug; 32(5):1005. View in: PubMed

  165. Efficacy of FK506, leflunomide, anti-CD4, and CTLA4IG treatments in rat to mouse pancreas xenograft transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2000 Aug; 32(5):1003-4. View in: PubMed

  166. Differential immune response to carbohydrate epitopes on allo- and xenografts: implications for accommodation. Transplant Proc. 2000 Aug; 32(5):991-3. View in: PubMed

  167. Anti-galactose-alpha(1,3)Galactose antibody production in alpha1, 3-galactosyltransferase gene knockout mice after xeno- and allotransplantation. Transplant Proc. 2000 Aug; 32(5):844-5. View in: PubMed

  168. Tolerance of T-independent xeno-antibody responses in the hamster-to-rat xenotransplantation model is species-restricted but not tissue-specific. Xenotransplantation. 2000 Feb; 7(1):48-57. View in: PubMed

  169. Inhibition of cytomegalovirus in vitro and in vivo by the experimental immunosuppressive agent leflunomide. Intervirology. 1999; 42(5-6):412-8. View in: PubMed

  170. Differential immune responses to alpha-gal epitopes on xenografts and allografts: implications for accommodation in xenotransplantation. J Clin Invest. 2000 Feb; 105(3):301-10. View in: PubMed

  171. Transcriptional regulation of Fas gene expression by GA-binding protein and AP-1 in T cell antigen receptor.CD3 complex-stimulated T cells. J Biol Chem. 1999 Dec 03; 274(49):35203-10. View in: PubMed

  172. The portosystemic shunt protects liver against ischemic reperfusion injury. Transplantation. 1999 Oct 15; 68(7):958-63. View in: PubMed

  173. Novel mechanism of inhibition of cytomegalovirus by the experimental immunosuppressive agent leflunomide. Transplantation. 1999 Sep 27; 68(6):814-25. View in: PubMed

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