Anita S. Chong

Research Summary
My lab has had a long-standing interest in understanding the basis of immunological tolerance and humoral immunity following allogeneic transplantation. We have been collaborating extensively with Dr. Marisa Alegre in studying how infections prevent the induction of transplantation tolerance or destabilize established tolerance, and understanding the fundamental mechanisms of robust transplantation tolerance. We recently have developed new approaches to track a defined population of endogenous allospecific T (CD4+effectors (Th1 and Tfh), CD4+Tregs and CD8 effector) and B cells (Class I and Class II reactive), and are now asking how each of these subsets of cells behave under conditions of rejection, memory/sensitization and tolerance, with the goal of identifying new biomarkers of tolerance and rejection. We also actively investigating the behavior of memory alloreactive B cells in the setting of transplantation, and in identifying how these cells differ from naïve B cells, with the goal of identifying immunosuppressive and tolerance inducing strategies to control this clinically important subset of cells. We are conducting these studies in experimental rodent models, and also testing our findings in humans. These studies are performed in collaboration with Dr. Roger Sciammas at UCDavis, and the clinical transplant faculty at the University of Chicago and Ohio State University. In addition, we have stretched our research into the prevention of infections through vaccination, with the long-term goal of using this strategy as an indirect but cost-effective means of stabilizing tolerance. Towards this goal, my lab has been collaborating with Dr. Chris Montgomery, a physician scientist in the Department of Pediatrics, to identify sub-unit vaccine candidates and to investigate the immunobiology of protection from Staphylococcus aureus skin infections. My lab also has a strong program of collaborative research with Dr. Joel Collier, a bioengineer at Duke University, to develop of nanoparticulate adjuvant-free vaccines that can elicit protective immune responses with minimal inflammation. Such a vaccine that elicits minimal inflammation may be ideal for tolerant patients, as we now appreciate that inflammation can destabilize established tolerance.
Education
  • University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, Research Associate
  • Tufts University , Boston, MA, Post-Doctoral Fellow
  • Australian National University, Australia, PhD
  • University of Malaya, Malaysia, BS (Hons)
Biosciences Graduate Program Association
Publications
  1. Chong AS, Rothstein DM, Issa F, Kotsch K, Leuvenink H, Tullius SG. ITS finally here! The first International Transplant Science meeting jointly organized by AST, ESOT, and TTS. Transplantation. 2019 Oct; 103(10):1975-1976. View in: PubMed

  2. Chong AS. B Cell Recruitment Follows Kidney Injury and Maladaptive Repair. Transplantation. 2019 Aug; 103(8):1527-1529. View in: PubMed

  3. Lei YM, Sepulveda M, Chen L, Wang Y, Pirozzolo I, Theriault B, Chong AS, Belkaid Y, Alegre ML. Skin-restricted commensal colonization accelerates skin graft rejection. JCI Insight. 2019 Jul 16; 5. View in: PubMed

  4. Habal MV, Farr M, Restaino S, Chong A. Desensitization in the Era of Precision Medicine: Moving From the Bench to Bedside. Transplantation. 2019 Aug; 103(8):1574-1581. View in: PubMed

  5. Miller ML, Chong AS, Alegre ML. Fifty Shades of Tolerance: Beyond a Binary Tolerant/Non-Tolerant Paradigm. Curr Transplant Rep. 2017 Dec; 4(4):262-269. View in: PubMed

  6. Chong AS. Urinary nanosensors of early transplant rejection. Nat Biomed Eng. 2019 Apr; 3(4):251-252. View in: PubMed

  7. Chong AS, Rothstein DM, Safa K, Riella LV. Outstanding questions in transplantation: B cells, alloantibodies, and humoral rejection. Am J Transplant. 2019 Aug; 19(8):2155-2163. View in: PubMed

  8. Gupta PK, McIntosh CM, Chong AS, Alegre ML. The pursuit of transplantation tolerance: new mechanistic insights. Cell Mol Immunol. 2019 Apr; 16(4):324-333. View in: PubMed

  9. Zwang NA, Ganesh BB, Cardenas KT, Chong AS, Finn PW, Perkins DL. An optimized protocol to quantify signaling in human transitional B cells by phospho flow cytometry. J Immunol Methods. 2018 12; 463:112-121. View in: PubMed

  10. Chong AS. New insights into the development of B cell responses: Implications for solid organ transplantation. Hum Immunol. 2019 Jun; 80(6):378-384. View in: PubMed

  11. Miller ML, McIntosh CM, Williams JB, Wang Y, Hollinger MK, Isaad NJ, Moon JJ, Gajewski TF, Chong AS, Alegre ML. Distinct Graft-Specific TCR Avidity Profiles during Acute Rejection and Tolerance. Cell Rep. 2018 08 21; 24(8):2112-2126. View in: PubMed

  12. Young JS, Yin D, Vannier AGL, Alegre ML, Chong AS. Equal Expansion of Endogenous Transplant-Specific Regulatory T Cell and Recruitment Into the Allograft During Rejection and Tolerance. Front Immunol. 2018; 9:1385. View in: PubMed

  13. Si Y, Wen Y, Kelly SH, Chong AS, Collier JH. Intranasal delivery of adjuvant-free peptide nanofibers elicits resident CD8+ T cell responses. J Control Release. 2018 07 28; 282:120-130. View in: PubMed

  14. Si Y, Wen Y, Chen J, Pompano RR, Han H, Collier J, Chong AS. MyD88 in antigen-presenting cells is not required for CD4+ T-cell responses during peptide nanofiber vaccination. Medchemcomm. 2018; 9(1):138-148. View in: PubMed

  15. Chong AS, Ansari MJ. Heterogeneity of memory B cells. Am J Transplant. 2018 04; 18(4):779-784. View in: PubMed

  16. Mora-Solano C, Wen Y, Han H, Chen J, Chong AS, Miller ML, Pompano RR, Collier JH. Active immunotherapy for TNF-mediated inflammation using self-assembled peptide nanofibers. Biomaterials. 2017 Dec; 149:1-11. View in: PubMed

  17. Young JS, Khiew SH, Yang J, Vannier A, Yin D, Sciammas R, Alegre ML, Chong AS. Successful Treatment of T Cell-Mediated Acute Rejection with Delayed CTLA4-Ig in Mice. Front Immunol. 2017; 8:1169. View in: PubMed

  18. Krishnamoorthy V, Kannanganat S, Maienschein-Cline M, Cook SL, Chen J, Bahroos N, Sievert E, Corse E, Chong A, Sciammas R. The IRF4 Gene Regulatory Module Functions as a Read-Write Integrator to Dynamically Coordinate T Helper Cell Fate. Immunity. 2017 09 19; 47(3):481-497.e7. View in: PubMed

  19. Chong AS. Alone Again, Naturally: B Cells Encountering Antigen Without T cells. Transplantation. 2017 09; 101(9):1956-1958. View in: PubMed

  20. de Graav GN, Hesselink DA, Dieterich M, Kraaijeveld R, Verschoor W, Roelen DL, Litjens NHR, Chong AS, Weimar W, Baan CC. Belatacept Does Not Inhibit Follicular T Cell-Dependent B-Cell Differentiation in Kidney Transplantation. Front Immunol. 2017; 8:641. View in: PubMed

  21. Young JS, McIntosh C, Alegre ML, Chong AS. Evolving Approaches in the Identification of Allograft-Reactive T and B Cells in Mice and Humans. Transplantation. 2017 11; 101(11):2671-2681. View in: PubMed

  22. Khiew SH, Yang J, Young JS, Chen J, Wang Q, Yin D, Vu V, Miller ML, Sciammas R, Alegre ML, Chong AS. CTLA4-Ig in combination with FTY720 promotes allograft survival in sensitized recipients. JCI Insight. 2017 May 04; 2(9). View in: PubMed

  23. Chong AS, Khiew SH. Transplantation tolerance: don't forget about the B cells. Clin Exp Immunol. 2017 08; 189(2):171-180. View in: PubMed

  24. Miller ML, Alegre ML, Chong AS. Transplantation tolerance after allograft rejection. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2017 Feb; 22(1):64-70. View in: PubMed

  25. Carroll R, Troelnikov A, Chong AS. Virtual Global Transplant Laboratory Standard Operating Protocol for Donor Alloantigen-specific Interferon-gamma ELISPOT Assay. Transplant Direct. 2016 Nov; 2(11):e111. View in: PubMed

  26. Chong AS. From Pipe Dream to Donor-Specific PC Elimination: Novel Ways to Target Alloantibodies. Transplantation. 2016 11; 100(11):2238-2239. View in: PubMed

  27. Perera J, Zheng Z, Li S, Gudjonson H, Kalinina O, Benichou JIC, Block KE, Louzoun Y, Yin D, Chong AS, Dinner AR, Weigert M, Huang H. Self-Antigen-Driven Thymic B Cell Class Switching Promotes T Cell Central Tolerance. Cell Rep. 2016 10 04; 17(2):387-398. View in: PubMed

  28. Alegre ML, Chen L, David MZ, Bartman C, Boyle-Vavra S, Kumar N, Chong AS, Daum RS. Impact of Staphylococcus aureus USA300 Colonization and Skin Infections on Systemic Immune Responses in Humans. J Immunol. 2016 08 15; 197(4):1118-26. View in: PubMed

  29. Yang J, Chen J, Young JS, Wang Q, Yin D, Sciammas R, Chong AS. Tracing Donor-MHC Class II Reactive B cells in Mouse Cardiac Transplantation: Delayed CTLA4-Ig Treatment Prevents Memory Alloreactive B-Cell Generation. Transplantation. 2016 08; 100(8):1683-91. View in: PubMed

  30. Lei YM, Chen L, Wang Y, Stefka AT, Molinero LL, Theriault B, Aquino-Michaels K, Sivan AS, Nagler CR, Gajewski TF, Chong AS, Bartman C, Alegre ML. The composition of the microbiota modulates allograft rejection. J Clin Invest. 2016 07 01; 126(7):2736-44. View in: PubMed

  31. Young JS, Daniels MD, Miller ML, Wang T, Zhong R, Yin D, Alegre ML, Chong AS. Erosion of Transplantation Tolerance After Infection. Am J Transplant. 2017 01; 17(1):81-90. View in: PubMed

  32. Miller ML, Daniels MD, Wang T, Wang Y, Xu J, Yin D, Chong AS, Alegre ML. Tracking of TCR-Transgenic T Cells Reveals That Multiple Mechanisms Maintain Cardiac Transplant Tolerance in Mice. Am J Transplant. 2016 10; 16(10):2854-2864. View in: PubMed

  33. Miller ML, Chen J, Daniels MD, McKeague MG, Wang Y, Yin D, Vu V, Chong AS, Alegre ML. Adoptive Transfer of Tracer-Alloreactive CD4+ T Cell Receptor Transgenic T Cells Alters the Endogenous Immune Response to an Allograft. Am J Transplant. 2016 10; 16(10):2842-2853. View in: PubMed

  34. Molinero LL, Yin D, Lei YM, Chen L, Wang Y, Chong AS, Alegre ML. High-Fat Diet-Induced Obesity Enhances Allograft Rejection. Transplantation. 2016 05; 100(5):1015-21. View in: PubMed

  35. Young JS, Chen J, Miller ML, Vu V, Tian C, Moon JJ, Alegre ML, Sciammas R, Chong AS. Delayed Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte-Associated Protein 4-Immunoglobulin Treatment Reverses Ongoing Alloantibody Responses and Rescues Allografts From Acute Rejection. Am J Transplant. 2016 08; 16(8):2312-23. View in: PubMed

  36. Zhao F, Chong AS, Montgomery CP. Importance of B Lymphocytes and the IgG-Binding Protein Sbi in Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection. Pathogens. 2016 Jan 27; 5(1). View in: PubMed

  37. Chen J, Wang Q, Yin D, Vu V, Sciammas R, Chong AS. Cutting Edge: CTLA-4Ig Inhibits Memory B Cell Responses and Promotes Allograft Survival in Sensitized Recipients. J Immunol. 2015 Nov 01; 195(9):4069-73. View in: PubMed

  38. Zhao F, Cheng BL, Boyle-Vavra S, Alegre ML, Daum RS, Chong AS, Montgomery CP. Proteomic Identification of saeRS-Dependent Targets Critical for Protective Humoral Immunity against Staphylococcus aureus Skin Infection. Infect Immun. 2015 Sep; 83(9):3712-21. View in: PubMed

  39. Miller ML, Daniels MD, Wang T, Chen J, Young J, Xu J, Wang Y, Yin D, Vu V, Husain AN, Alegre ML, Chong AS. Spontaneous restoration of transplantation tolerance after acute rejection. Nat Commun. 2015 Jul 07; 6:7566. View in: PubMed

  40. Geissler EK, Tullius SG, Chong AS. Establishment of a global virtual laboratory for transplantation: a symposium report. Transplantation. 2015 Feb; 99(2):381-4. View in: PubMed

  41. Bartman C, Chong AS, Alegre ML. The influence of the microbiota on the immune response to transplantation. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2015 Feb; 20(1):1-7. View in: PubMed

  42. Chong AS, Sciammas R. Memory B cells in transplantation. Transplantation. 2015 Jan; 99(1):21-8. View in: PubMed

  43. Yilmaz B, Portugal S, Tran TM, Gozzelino R, Ramos S, Gomes J, Regalado A, Cowan PJ, d'Apice AJ, Chong AS, Doumbo OK, Traore B, Crompton PD, Silveira H, Soares MP. Gut microbiota elicits a protective immune response against malaria transmission. Cell. 2014 Dec 04; 159(6):1277-89. View in: PubMed

  44. Chong AS, Perkins DL. Transplantation: molecular phenotyping of T-cell-mediated rejection. Nat Rev Nephrol. 2014 12; 10(12):678-80. View in: PubMed

  45. Chong AS, Kaplan B. New kid on the pretransplant block: IgG recognizing apoptotic cells. Am J Transplant. 2014 Jul; 14(7):1477-8. View in: PubMed

  46. Hudalla GA, Sun T, Gasiorowski JZ, Han H, Tian YF, Chong AS, Collier JH. Gradated assembly of multiple proteins into supramolecular nanomaterials. Nat Mater. 2014 Aug; 13(8):829-36. View in: PubMed

  47. Pompano RR, Chen J, Verbus EA, Han H, Fridman A, McNeely T, Collier JH, Chong AS. Titrating T-cell epitopes within self-assembled vaccines optimizes CD4+ helper T cell and antibody outputs. Adv Healthc Mater. 2014 Nov; 3(11):1898-908. View in: PubMed

  48. Shi C, Shenkar R, Kinloch A, Henderson SG, Shaaya M, Chong AS, Clark MR, Awad IA. Immune complex formation and in situ B-cell clonal expansion in human cerebral cavernous malformations. J Neuroimmunol. 2014 Jul 15; 272(1-2):67-75. View in: PubMed

  49. Mengel M, Chong A, Rothstein DM, Zorn E, Maltzman JS. AST Cutting Edge of Transplantation 2013 Meeting Report: a comprehensive look at B cells and antibodies in transplantation. Am J Transplant. 2014 Mar; 14(3):524-30. View in: PubMed

  50. Slegtenhorst BR, Dor FJ, Elkhal A, Rodriguez H, Yang X, Edtinger K, Quante M, Chong AS, Tullius SG. Mechanisms and consequences of injury and repair in older organ transplants. Transplantation. 2014 Jun 15; 97(11):1091-9. View in: PubMed

  51. Montgomery CP, Daniels M, Zhao F, Alegre ML, Chong AS, Daum RS. Protective immunity against recurrent Staphylococcus aureus skin infection requires antibody and interleukin-17A. Infect Immun. 2014 May; 82(5):2125-34. View in: PubMed

  52. Chong AS, Alegre ML. Transplantation tolerance and its outcome during infections and inflammation. Immunol Rev. 2014 Mar; 258(1):80-101. View in: PubMed

  53. Cowan M, Chon WJ, Desai A, Andrews S, Bai Y, Veguilla V, Katz JM, Josephson MA, Wilson PC, Sciammas R, Chong AS. Impact of immunosuppression on recall immune responses to influenza vaccination in stable renal transplant recipients. Transplantation. 2014 Apr 27; 97(8):846-53. View in: PubMed

  54. Chong AS, Alegre ML, Miller ML, Fairchild RL. Lessons and limits of mouse models. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2013 Dec 01; 3(12):a015495. View in: PubMed

  55. Chen J, Pompano RR, Santiago FW, Maillat L, Sciammas R, Sun T, Han H, Topham DJ, Chong AS, Collier JH. The use of self-adjuvanting nanofiber vaccines to elicit high-affinity B cell responses to peptide antigens without inflammation. Biomaterials. 2013 Nov; 34(34):8776-85. View in: PubMed

  56. Alegre ML, Bartman C, Chong AS. Microbes and allogeneic transplantation. Transplantation. 2014 Jan 15; 97(1):5-11. View in: PubMed

  57. Montgomery CP, Daniels MD, Zhao F, Spellberg B, Chong AS, Daum RS. Local inflammation exacerbates the severity of Staphylococcus aureus skin infection. PLoS One. 2013; 8(7):e69508. View in: PubMed

  58. Chen J, Yin H, Xu J, Wang Q, Edelblum KL, Sciammas R, Chong AS. Reversing endogenous alloreactive B cell GC responses with anti-CD154 or CTLA-4Ig. Am J Transplant. 2013 Sep; 13(9):2280-92. View in: PubMed

  59. Yan W, Xu R, Ma LL, Han W, Geevarghese SK, Williams PE, Sciammas R, Chong AS, Yin DP. B cells assist allograft rejection in the deficiency of protein kinase c-theta. Transpl Int. 2013 Sep; 26(9):919-27. View in: PubMed

  60. Yin H, Park SY, Wang XJ, Misawa R, Grossman EJ, Tao J, Zhong R, Witkowski P, Bell GI, Chong AS. Enhancing pancreatic Beta-cell regeneration in vivo with pioglitazone and alogliptin. PLoS One. 2013; 8(6):e65777. View in: PubMed

  61. Ochiai K, Maienschein-Cline M, Simonetti G, Chen J, Rosenthal R, Brink R, Chong AS, Klein U, Dinner AR, Singh H, Sciammas R. Transcriptional regulation of germinal center B and plasma cell fates by dynamical control of IRF4. Immunity. 2013 May 23; 38(5):918-29. View in: PubMed

  62. Hudalla GA, Modica JA, Tian YF, Rudra JS, Chong AS, Sun T, Mrksich M, Collier JH. A self-adjuvanting supramolecular vaccine carrying a folded protein antigen. Adv Healthc Mater. 2013 Aug; 2(8):1114-9. View in: PubMed

  63. Chang A, Moore JM, Cowan ML, Josephson MA, Chon WJ, Sciammas R, Du Z, Marino SR, Meehan SM, Millis M, David MZ, Williams JW, Chong AS. Plasma cell densities and glomerular filtration rates predict renal allograft outcomes following acute rejection. Transpl Int. 2012 Oct; 25(10):1050-8. View in: PubMed

  64. Rudra JS, Mishra S, Chong AS, Mitchell RA, Nardin EH, Nussenzweig V, Collier JH. Self-assembled peptide nanofibers raising durable antibody responses against a malaria epitope. Biomaterials. 2012 Sep; 33(27):6476-84. View in: PubMed

  65. Chong AS, Alegre ML. The impact of infection and tissue damage in solid-organ transplantation. Nat Rev Immunol. 2012 May 25; 12(6):459-71. View in: PubMed

  66. Chong AS, Bell GI. Three Strikes and You're Cured. Sci Transl Med. 2012 May 09; 4(133):133fs12. View in: PubMed

  67. Rudra JS, Sun T, Bird KC, Daniels MD, Gasiorowski JZ, Chong AS, Collier JH. Modulating adaptive immune responses to peptide self-assemblies. ACS Nano. 2012 Feb 28; 6(2):1557-64. View in: PubMed

  68. Alegre ML, Chong AS. "Tip-toeing" to an assay for transplantation tolerance? Am J Transplant. 2012 Mar; 12(3):519-20. View in: PubMed

  69. Chong AS, Sciammas R. Matchmaking the B-cell signature of tolerance to regulatory B cells. Am J Transplant. 2011 Dec; 11(12):2555-60. View in: PubMed

  70. Cowan ML, Sciammas R, Chong AS. Experimental models of B cell tolerance in transplantation. Semin Immunol. 2012 Apr; 24(2):77-85. View in: PubMed

  71. Ahmed EB, Wang T, Daniels M, Alegre ML, Chong AS. IL-6 induced by Staphylococcus aureus infection prevents the induction of skin allograft acceptance in mice. Am J Transplant. 2011 May; 11(5):936-46. View in: PubMed

  72. Newell KA, Chong AS. Making a B-line for transplantation tolerance. Am J Transplant. 2011 Mar; 11(3):420-1. View in: PubMed

  73. Burns AM, Chong AS. Alloantibodies prevent the induction of transplantation tolerance by enhancing alloreactive T cell priming. J Immunol. 2011 Jan 01; 186(1):214-21. View in: PubMed

  74. Ahmed EB, Daniels M, Alegre ML, Chong AS. Bacterial infections, alloimmunity, and transplantation tolerance. Transplant Rev (Orlando). 2011 Jan; 25(1):27-35. View in: PubMed

  75. Grossman E, Tao J, Wilson R, Park SY, Bell G, Chong A. Seeing is believing: how the MIP-luc mouse can advance the field of islet transplantation and ß-cell regeneration. Islets. 2010 Jul-Aug; 2(4):261-2. View in: PubMed

  76. Wang T, Ahmed EB, Chen L, Xu J, Tao J, Wang CR, Alegre ML, Chong AS. Infection with the intracellular bacterium, Listeria monocytogenes, overrides established tolerance in a mouse cardiac allograft model. Am J Transplant. 2010 Jul; 10(7):1524-33. View in: PubMed

  77. Bhorade SM, Chen H, Molinero L, Liao C, Garrity ER, Vigneswaran WT, Shilling R, Sperling A, Chong A, Alegre ML. Decreased percentage of CD4+FoxP3+ cells in bronchoalveolar lavage from lung transplant recipients correlates with development of bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome. Transplantation. 2010 Sep 15; 90(5):540-6. View in: PubMed

  78. Ahmed EB, Alegre ML, Chong AS. Role of bacterial infections in allograft rejection. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2008 Mar; 4(2):281-93. View in: PubMed

  79. Grossman EJ, Lee DD, Tao J, Wilson RA, Park SY, Bell GI, Chong AS. Glycemic control promotes pancreatic beta-cell regeneration in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. PLoS One. 2010 Jan 18; 5(1):e8749. View in: PubMed

  80. Alegre ML, Chong A. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in transplantation. Front Biosci (Elite Ed). 2009 Jun 01; 1:36-43. View in: PubMed

  81. Alegre ML, Chen L, Wang T, Ahmed E, Wang CR, Chong A. Antagonistic effect of toll-like receptor signaling and bacterial infections on transplantation tolerance. Transplantation. 2009 May 15; 87(9 Suppl):S77-9. View in: PubMed

  82. Chen L, Ahmed E, Wang T, Wang Y, Ochando J, Chong AS, Alegre ML. TLR signals promote IL-6/IL-17-dependent transplant rejection. J Immunol. 2009 May 15; 182(10):6217-25. View in: PubMed

  83. Burns AM, Ma L, Li Y, Yin D, Shen J, Xu J, Chong AS. Memory alloreactive B cells and alloantibodies prevent anti-CD154-mediated allograft acceptance. J Immunol. 2009 Feb 01; 182(3):1314-24. View in: PubMed

  84. Alegre ML, Goldstein DR, Chong AS. Toll-like receptor signaling in transplantation. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2008 Aug; 13(4):358-65. View in: PubMed

  85. Alegre ML, Leemans J, Le Moine A, Florquin S, De Wilde V, Chong A, Goldman M. The multiple facets of toll-like receptors in transplantation biology. Transplantation. 2008 Jul 15; 86(1):1-9. View in: PubMed

  86. Dorrance AM, Liu S, Chong A, Pulley B, Nemer D, Guimond M, Yuan W, Chang D, Whitman SP, Marcucci G, Caligiuri MA. The Mll partial tandem duplication: differential, tissue-specific activity in the presence or absence of the wild-type allele. Blood. 2008 Sep 15; 112(6):2508-11. View in: PubMed

  87. Xiang Z, Ma LL, Manicassamy S, Ganesh BB, Williams P, Chari R, Chong A, Yin DP. CD4+ T cells are sufficient to elicit allograft rejection and major histocompatibility complex class I molecule is required to induce recurrent autoimmune diabetes after pancreas transplantation in mice. Transplantation. 2008 Apr 27; 85(8):1205-11. View in: PubMed

  88. Li Y, Ma L, Yin D, Shen J, Chong AS. Long-term control of alloreactive B cell responses by the suppression of T cell help. J Immunol. 2008 May 01; 180(9):6077-84. View in: PubMed

  89. Wang T, Chen L, Ahmed E, Ma L, Yin D, Zhou P, Shen J, Xu H, Wang CR, Alegre ML, Chong AS. Prevention of allograft tolerance by bacterial infection with Listeria monocytogenes. J Immunol. 2008 May 01; 180(9):5991-9. View in: PubMed

  90. Ma L, Xiang Z, Sherrill TP, Wang L, Blackwell TS, Williams P, Chong A, Chari R, Yin DP. Bioluminescence imaging visualizes activation of nuclear factor-kappaB in mouse cardiac transplantation. Transplantation. 2008 Mar 27; 85(6):903-10. View in: PubMed

  91. Lee DD, Grossman E, Chong AS. Cellular therapies for type 1 diabetes. Horm Metab Res. 2008 Feb; 40(2):147-54. View in: PubMed

  92. Ding JW, Zhou T, Zeng H, Ma L, Verbeek JS, Yin D, Shen J, Chong AS. Hyperacute rejection by anti-Gal IgG1, IgG2a, and IgG2b is dependent on complement and Fc-gamma receptors. J Immunol. 2008 Jan 01; 180(1):261-8. View in: PubMed

  93. Ding JW, Zhou T, Ma L, Yin D, Shen J, Ding CP, Tang IY, Byrne GW, Chong AS. Expression of complement regulatory proteins in accommodated xenografts induced by anti-alpha-Gal IgG1 in a rat-to-mouse model. Am J Transplant. 2008 Jan; 8(1):32-40. View in: PubMed

  94. Li Y, Ma L, Shen J, Chong AS. Peripheral deletion of mature alloreactive B cells induced by costimulation blockade. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jul 17; 104(29):12093-8. View in: PubMed

  95. Kirk AD, Baldwin WM, Cascalho MI, Chong AS, Sykes M, West LJ. American society of transplantation symposium on B cells in transplantation: harnessing humoral immunity from rodent models to clinical practice. Am J Transplant. 2007 Jun; 7(6):1464-70. View in: PubMed

  96. Yin D, Tao J, Lee DD, Shen J, Hara M, Lopez J, Kuznetsov A, Philipson LH, Chong AS. Recovery of islet beta-cell function in streptozotocin- induced diabetic mice: an indirect role for the spleen. Diabetes. 2006 Dec; 55(12):3256-63. View in: PubMed

  97. Chen L, Wang T, Zhou P, Ma L, Yin D, Shen J, Molinero L, Nozaki T, Phillips T, Uematsu S, Akira S, Wang CR, Fairchild RL, Alegre ML, Chong A. TLR engagement prevents transplantation tolerance. Am J Transplant. 2006 Oct; 6(10):2282-91. View in: PubMed

  98. Chong AS, Shen J, Tao J, Yin D, Kuznetsov A, Hara M, Philipson LH. Reversal of diabetes in non-obese diabetic mice without spleen cell-derived beta cell regeneration. Science. 2006 Mar 24; 311(5768):1774-5. View in: PubMed

  99. Chong AS, Zeng H, Knight DA, Shen J, Meister GT, Williams JW, Waldman WJ. Concurrent antiviral and immunosuppressive activities of leflunomide in vivo. Am J Transplant. 2006 Jan; 6(1):69-75. View in: PubMed

  100. Yin D, Ding JW, Shen J, Ma L, Hara M, Chong AS. Liver ischemia contributes to early islet failure following intraportal transplantation: benefits of liver ischemic-preconditioning. Am J Transplant. 2006 Jan; 6(1):60-8. View in: PubMed

  101. Yu P, Lee Y, Liu W, Krausz T, Chong A, Schreiber H, Fu YX. Intratumor depletion of CD4+ cells unmasks tumor immunogenicity leading to the rejection of late-stage tumors. J Exp Med. 2005 Mar 07; 201(5):779-91. View in: PubMed

  102. Zeng H, Waldman WJ, Yin DP, Knight DA, Shen J, Ma L, Meister GT, Chong AS, Williams JW. Mechanistic study of malononitrileamide FK778 in cardiac transplantation and CMV infection in rats. Transplantation. 2005 Jan 15; 79(1):17-22. View in: PubMed

  103. Li D, Gál I, Vermes C, Alegre ML, Chong AS, Chen L, Shao Q, Adarichev V, Xu X, Koreny T, Mikecz K, Finnegan A, Glant TT, Zhang J. Cutting edge: Cbl-b: one of the key molecules tuning CD28- and CTLA-4-mediated T cell costimulation. J Immunol. 2004 Dec 15; 173(12):7135-9. View in: PubMed

  104. Hara M, Yin D, Dizon RF, Shen J, Chong AS, Bindokas VP. A mouse model for studying intrahepatic islet transplantation. Transplantation. 2004 Aug 27; 78(4):615-8. View in: PubMed

  105. Yin D, Zeng H, Ma L, Shen J, Xu H, Byrne GW, Chong AS. Cutting Edge: NK cells mediate IgG1-dependent hyperacute rejection of xenografts. J Immunol. 2004 Jun 15; 172(12):7235-8. View in: PubMed

  106. Leventhal JR, Sun J, Zhang J, Galili U, Chong A, Baker M, Kaufman DB, Wright JR. Evidence that tilapia islets do not express alpha-(1,3)gal: implications for islet xenotransplantation. Xenotransplantation. 2004 May; 11(3):276-83. View in: PubMed

  107. Ogawa H, Mohiuddin MM, Yin DP, Shen J, Chong AS, Galili U. Mouse-heart grafts expressing an incompatible carbohydrate antigen. II. Transition from accommodation to tolerance. Transplantation. 2004 Feb 15; 77(3):366-73. View in: PubMed

  108. Martin MJ, Yin D, Adams C, Houtz J, Shen J, Chong AS, Sharma A, Byrne GW, Wiseman BS, Logan JS. Skin graft survival in genetically identical cloned pigs. Cloning Stem Cells. 2003; 5(2):117-21. View in: PubMed

  109. Xu H, Yin D, Naziruddin B, Chen L, Stark A, Wei Y, Lei Y, Shen J, Logan JS, Byrne GW, Chong AS. The in vitro and in vivo effects of anti-galactose antibodies on endothelial cell activation and xenograft rejection. J Immunol. 2003 Feb 01; 170(3):1531-9. View in: PubMed

  110. Yin D, Dujovny N, Ma L, Varghese A, Shen J, Bishop DK, Chong AS. IFN-gamma production is specifically regulated by IL-10 in mice made tolerant with anti-CD40 ligand antibody and intact active bone. J Immunol. 2003 Jan 15; 170(2):853-60. View in: PubMed

  111. Tanemura M, Chong AS, DiSesa VJ, Galili U. Direct killing of xenograft cells by CD8+ T cells of discordant xenograft recipients. Transplantation. 2002 Dec 15; 74(11):1587-95. View in: PubMed

  112. Yin DP, Ma LL, Sankary HN, Shen J, Zeng H, Varghese A, Chong AS. Role of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in the rejection of concordant pancreas xenografts. Transplantation. 2002 Nov 15; 74(9):1236-41. View in: PubMed

  113. Yin D, Ma L, Zeng H, Shen J, Chong AS. Allograft tolerance induced by intact active bone co-transplantation and anti-CD40L monoclonal antibody therapy. Transplantation. 2002 Aug 15; 74(3):345-54. View in: PubMed

  114. Dujovny N, Varghese A, Shen J, Yin D, Ji S, Ma L, Finnegan A, Chong AS. Acute xenograft rejection mediated by antibodies produced independently of TH1/TH2 cytokine profiles. Am J Transplant. 2002 Jul; 2(6):526-34. View in: PubMed

  115. Yin D, Ma L, Shen J, Byrne GW, Logan JS, Chong AS. CTLA-41g in combination with anti-CD40L prolongs xenograft survival and inhibits anti-gal ab production in GT-Ko mice. Am J Transplant. 2002 Jan; 2(1):41-7. View in: PubMed

  116. Xu H, Sharma A, Lei Y, Okabe J, Wan H, Chong AS, Logan JS, Byrne GW. Development and characterization of anti-Gal B cell receptor transgenic Gal-/- mice. Transplantation. 2002 May 27; 73(10):1549-57. View in: PubMed

  117. Yin D, Ma L, Varghese A, Shen J, Chong AS. Intact active bone transplantation synergizes with anti-CD40 ligand therapy to induce B cell tolerance. J Immunol. 2002 May 15; 168(10):5352-8. View in: PubMed

  118. Williams JW, Mital D, Chong A, Kottayil A, Millis M, Longstreth J, Huang W, Brady L, Jensik S. Experiences with leflunomide in solid organ transplantation. Transplantation. 2002 Feb 15; 73(3):358-66. View in: PubMed

  119. Xu H, Sharma A, Chen L, Harrison C, Wei Y, Chong AS, Logan JS, Byrne GW, Shama A. The structure of anti-Gal immunoglobulin genes in naïve and stimulated Gal knockout mice. Transplantation. 2001 Dec 15; 72(11):1817-25. View in: PubMed

  120. Regan RF, Wang Y, Ma X, Chong A, Guo Y. Activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases potentiates hemin toxicity in astrocyte cultures. J Neurochem. 2001 Nov; 79(3):545-55. View in: PubMed

  121. Jeffrey M, Martin S, Barr J, Chong A, Fraser JR. Onset of accumulation of PrPres in murine ME7 scrapie in relation to pathological and PrP immunohistochemical changes. J Comp Pathol. 2001 Jan; 124(1):20-8. View in: PubMed

  122. Yin DP, Sankary HN, Ma LL, Shen J, Qin Y, Blinder L, Williams JW, Chong AS. Lewis rat pancreas, but not cardiac xenografts, are resistant to anti-gal antibody mediated hyperacute rejection. Transplantation. 2001 May 27; 71(10):1385-9. View in: PubMed

  123. Woo J, Zhang W, Gao L, Shen J, Chong A, Buelow R. Combination of antilymphocyte globulin and leflunomide leads to superior grafts. Transplant Proc. 2001 Feb-Mar; 33(1-2):569. View in: PubMed

  124. Knight DA, Hejmanowski AQ, Dierksheide JE, Williams JW, Chong AS, Waldman WJ. Inhibition of herpes simplex virus type 1 by the experimental immunosuppressive agent leflunomide. Transplantation. 2001 Jan 15; 71(1):170-4. View in: PubMed

  125. Chong AS, Ma L, Yin D, Shen J, Blinder L, XiuLong X, Williams JW, Byrne G, Diamond LE, Logan JS. Non-depleting anti-CD4, but not anti-CD8, antibody induces long-term survival of xenogeneic and allogeneic hearts in alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout (GT-Ko) mice. Xenotransplantation. 2000 Nov; 7(4):275-83. View in: PubMed

  126. Chong A, Blinder L, Ma L, Yin D, Shen J, Williams JW, Byrne G, Schwarz A, Diamond LS, Logan JE. Anti-galactose-alpha(1,3) galactose antibody production in alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase gene knockout mice after xeno and allo transplantation. Transpl Immunol. 2000 Jun; 8(2):129-37. View in: PubMed

  127. Chong AS, Ma L, Yin D, Shen J, Blinder L, XiuLong X, Williams J, Byrne G, Diamond L, Logan J. Nondepleting anti-CD4 but not anti-CD8 antibody induces long-term survival of xenogeneic and allogeneic hearts in alpha1, 3-galactosyl-transferase knock-out mice. Transplant Proc. 2000 Aug; 32(5):1005. View in: PubMed

  128. Yin DP, Sankary HN, Shen J, Ma LL, Blinder L, Foster P, Williams JW, Chong A. Efficacy of FK506, leflunomide, anti-CD4, and CTLA4IG treatments in rat to mouse pancreas xenograft transplantation. Transplant Proc. 2000 Aug; 32(5):1003-4. View in: PubMed

  129. Tanemura M, Yin D, Chong A, Galili U. Differential immune response to carbohydrate epitopes on allo- and xenografts: implications for accommodation. Transplant Proc. 2000 Aug; 32(5):991-3. View in: PubMed

  130. Chong AS, Blinder L, Ma L, Yin D, Shen J, Williams JW, Byrne G, Schwarz A, Diamond LS, Logan JE. Anti-galactose-alpha(1,3)Galactose antibody production in alpha1, 3-galactosyltransferase gene knockout mice after xeno- and allotransplantation. Transplant Proc. 2000 Aug; 32(5):844-5. View in: PubMed

  131. Chong AS, Ma LL, Yin D, Blinder L, Shen J, Williams JW. Tolerance of T-independent xeno-antibody responses in the hamster-to-rat xenotransplantation model is species-restricted but not tissue-specific. Xenotransplantation. 2000 Feb; 7(1):48-57. View in: PubMed

  132. Waldman WJ, Knight DA, Blinder L, Shen J, Lurain NS, Miller DM, Sedmak DD, Williams JW, Chong AS. Inhibition of cytomegalovirus in vitro and in vivo by the experimental immunosuppressive agent leflunomide. Intervirology. 1999; 42(5-6):412-8. View in: PubMed

  133. Tanemura M, Yin D, Chong AS, Galili U. Differential immune responses to alpha-gal epitopes on xenografts and allografts: implications for accommodation in xenotransplantation. J Clin Invest. 2000 Feb; 105(3):301-10. View in: PubMed

  134. Li XR, Chong AS, Wu J, Roebuck KA, Kumar A, Parrillo JE, Rapp UR, Kimberly RP, Williams JW, Xu X. Transcriptional regulation of Fas gene expression by GA-binding protein and AP-1 in T cell antigen receptor.CD3 complex-stimulated T cells. J Biol Chem. 1999 Dec 03; 274(49):35203-10. View in: PubMed

  135. Sankary HN, Yin DP, Chong AS, Ma LL, Blinder L, Shen JK, Foster P, Liu LP, Li C, Williams JW. The portosystemic shunt protects liver against ischemic reperfusion injury. Transplantation. 1999 Oct 15; 68(7):958-63. View in: PubMed

  136. Waldman WJ, Knight DA, Lurain NS, Miller DM, Sedmak DD, Williams JW, Chong AS. Novel mechanism of inhibition of cytomegalovirus by the experimental immunosuppressive agent leflunomide. Transplantation. 1999 Sep 27; 68(6):814-25. View in: PubMed

  137. Xu X, Shen J, Mall JW, Myers JA, Huang W, Blinder L, Saclarides TJ, Williams JW, Chong AS. In vitro and in vivo antitumor activity of a novel immunomodulatory drug, leflunomide: mechanisms of action. Biochem Pharmacol. 1999 Nov 01; 58(9):1405-13. View in: PubMed

  138. Chong AS, Huang W, Liu W, Luo J, Shen J, Xu W, Ma L, Blinder L, Xiao F, Xu X, Clardy C, Foster P, Williams JA. In vivo activity of leflunomide: pharmacokinetic analyses and mechanism of immunosuppression. Transplantation. 1999 Jul 15; 68(1):100-9. View in: PubMed

  139. Sankary HN, Yin DP, Chong AS, Ma LL, Blinder L, Shen JK, Foster P, Williams JW. FK506 treatment in combination with leflunomide in hamster-to-rat heart and liver xenograft transplantation. Transplantation. 1998 Oct 15; 66(7):832-7. View in: PubMed

  140. Shen J, Chong AS, Xiao F, Liu W, Huang W, Blinder L, Foster P, Sankary H, Jensik S, McChesney L, Mital D, Williams JW. Histological characterization and pharmacological control of chronic rejection in xenogeneic and allogeneic heart transplantation. Transplantation. 1998 Sep 27; 66(6):692-8. View in: PubMed

  141. Yin D, Ma LL, Blinder L, Shen J, Sankary H, Williams JW, Chong AS. Induction of species-specific host accommodation in the hamster-to-rat xenotransplantation model. J Immunol. 1998 Aug 15; 161(4):2044-51. View in: PubMed

  142. Yin DP, Sankary HN, Chong AS, Ma LL, Shen J, Foster P, Williams JW. Protective effect of ischemic preconditioning on liver preservation-reperfusion injury in rats. Transplantation. 1998 Jul 27; 66(2):152-7. View in: PubMed

  143. Yin DP, Sankary HN, Talor-Edwards C, Chong AS, Foster P, Shen J, Ma LL, Williams JW, Fathman CG. Anti-CD4 therapy in combined heart-kidney, heart-liver, and heart-small bowel allotransplants in high-responder rats. Transplantation. 1998 Jul 15; 66(1):1-5. View in: PubMed

  144. Xu X, Fu XY, Plate J, Chong AS. IFN-gamma induces cell growth inhibition by Fas-mediated apoptosis: requirement of STAT1 protein for up-regulation of Fas and FasL expression. Cancer Res. 1998 Jul 01; 58(13):2832-7. View in: PubMed

  145. Guo Z, Mital D, Shen J, Chong AS, Tian Y, Foster P, Sankary H, McChesney L, Jensik SC, Williams JW. Immunosuppression preventing concordant xenogeneic islet graft rejection is not sufficient to prevent recurrence of autoimmune diabetes in nonobese diabetic mice. Transplantation. 1998 May 27; 65(10):1310-4. View in: PubMed

  146. Xu X, Williams JW, Shen J, Gong H, Yin DP, Blinder L, Elder RT, Sankary H, Finnegan A, Chong AS. In vitro and in vivo mechanisms of action of the antiproliferative and immunosuppressive agent, brequinar sodium. J Immunol. 1998 Jan 15; 160(2):846-53. View in: PubMed

  147. Guo Z, Mital D, Mo YY, Tian Y, Shen J, Chong AS, Foster P, Sankary H, McChesney L, Jensik SC, Williams JW. Effect of gene gun-mediated CTLA4IG and Fas ligand gene transfection on concordant xenogeneic islet graft rejection. Transplant Proc. 1998 Mar; 30(2):589. View in: PubMed

  148. Mital D, Guo Z, Tian Y, Shen J, Podlasek W, Foster P, Sankary H, Jensik S, McChesney L, Chong A, Olack B, Williams J. Leflunomide-based immunosuppression for porcine islet xenotransplantation. Transplant Proc. 1998 Mar; 30(2):515. View in: PubMed

  149. Guo Z, Mital D, Shen J, Chong AS, Tian Y, Foster P, Sankary H, McChesney L, Jensik SC, Williams JW. Differential effect of leflunomide on concordant xenogeneic islet graft rejection and recurrence of autoimmune diabetes. Transplant Proc. 1998 Mar; 30(2):463-4. View in: PubMed

  150. Siemasko K, Chong AS, Jäck HM, Gong H, Williams JW, Finnegan A. Inhibition of JAK3 and STAT6 tyrosine phosphorylation by the immunosuppressive drug leflunomide leads to a block in IgG1 production. J Immunol. 1998 Feb 15; 160(4):1581-8. View in: PubMed

  151. Chong AS, Ma LL, Shen J, Blinder L, Yin DP, Williams JW. Modification of humoral responses by the combination of leflunomide and cyclosporine in Lewis rats transplanted with hamster hearts. Transplantation. 1997 Dec 27; 64(12):1650-7. View in: PubMed

  152. Xu X, Gong H, Blinder L, Shen J, Williams JW, Chong AS. Control of lymphoproliferative and autoimmune disease in MRL-lpr/lpr mice by brequinar sodium: mechanisms of action. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Nov; 283(2):869-75. View in: PubMed

  153. Shen J, Short J, Blinder L, Karademir S, Foster P, Sankary H, Williams JW, Chong AS. Quantitation of the changes in splenic architecture during the rejection of cardiac allografts or xenografts. Transplantation. 1997 Aug 15; 64(3):448-53. View in: PubMed

  154. Yin DP, Sankary HN, Chong AS, Blinder L, Ma LL, Williams JW. Effect of anti-CD4 monoclonal antibody combined with human CTLA4Ig on the survival of hamster liver and heart xenografts in Lewis rats. Transplantation. 1997 Jul 27; 64(2):317-21. View in: PubMed

  155. Xu X, Blinder L, Shen J, Gong H, Finnegan A, Williams JW, Chong AS. In vivo mechanism by which leflunomide controls lymphoproliferative and autoimmune disease in MRL/MpJ-lpr/lpr mice. J Immunol. 1997 Jul 01; 159(1):167-74. View in: PubMed

  156. Elder RT, Xu X, Williams JW, Gong H, Finnegan A, Chong AS. The immunosuppressive metabolite of leflunomide, A77 1726, affects murine T cells through two biochemical mechanisms. J Immunol. 1997 Jul 01; 159(1):22-7. View in: PubMed

  157. Guo Z, Chong AS, Jandeska S, Sun WH, Tian Y, Podlasek W, Shen J, Mital D, Jensik S, Williams JW. Gene gun-mediated gene transfer and expression in rat islets. Transplant Proc. 1997 Jun; 29(4):2209-10. View in: PubMed

  158. Mital D, Guo Z, Chong AS, Fu Z, Tian Y, Foster PF, Jensik S, Shen J, Sankary HN, McChesney LP, Williams JW. Successful xenotransplantation of adult porcine islets in NOD and BALB/c mice with leflunomide and cyclosporine. Transplant Proc. 1997 Jun; 29(4):2166-7. View in: PubMed

  159. Guo Z, Chong AS, Tian Y, Shen J, Yin D, Mital D, Foster P, Sankary H, McChesney L, Jensik S, Williams JW. Effect of leflunomide and cyclosporine on concordant xenogeneic islet transplantation in streptozotocin-induced and autoimmune diabetic mice. Transplant Proc. 1997 Jun; 29(4):2155. View in: PubMed

  160. Guo Z, Chong AS, Shen J, Foster P, Sankary HN, McChesney L, Mital D, Jensik SC, Gebel H, Williams JW. Leflunomide, a potential immunosuppressant for pancreatic islet transplantation. Transplant Proc. 1997 Feb-Mar; 29(1-2):1296-7. View in: PubMed

  161. Guo Z, Chong AS, Shen J, Foster P, Sankary HN, McChesney L, Mital D, Jensik SC, Gebel H, Williams JW. In vivo effects of leflunomide on normal pancreatic islet and syngeneic islet graft function. Transplantation. 1997 Mar 15; 63(5):716-21. View in: PubMed

  162. Guo Z, Chong AS, Shen J, Foster P, Sankary HN, McChesney L, Mital D, Jensik SC, Williams JW. Prolongation of rat islet allograft survival by the immunosuppressive agent leflunomide. Transplantation. 1997 Mar 15; 63(5):711-6. View in: PubMed

  163. Chong AS. Receptors that turn on and turn off natural killer cells. J Heart Lung Transplant. 1996 Jul; 15(7):675-83. View in: PubMed

  164. Xu X, Chong AS. Vav in natural killer cells is tyrosine phosphorylated upon cross-linking of Fc gamma RIIIA and is constitutively associated with a serine/threonine kinase. Biochem J. 1996 Sep 01; 318 ( Pt 2):527-32. View in: PubMed

  165. Xu X, Williams JW, Gong H, Finnegan A, Chong AS. Two activities of the immunosuppressive metabolite of leflunomide, A77 1726. Inhibition of pyrimidine nucleotide synthesis and protein tyrosine phosphorylation. Biochem Pharmacol. 1996 Aug 23; 52(4):527-34. View in: PubMed

  166. Hope J, Shearman MS, Baxter HC, Chong A, Kelly SM, Price NC. Cytotoxicity of prion protein peptide (PrP106-126) differs in mechanism from the cytotoxic activity of the Alzheimer's disease amyloid peptide, A beta 25-35. Neurodegeneration. 1996 Mar; 5(1):1-11. View in: PubMed

  167. Chong AS, Shen J, Xiao F, Blinder L, Wei L, Sankary H, Foster P, Williams J. Delayed xenograft rejection in the concordant hamster heart into Lewis rat model. Transplantation. 1996 Jul 15; 62(1):90-6. View in: PubMed

  168. Xiao F, Shen J, Chong A, Liu W, Foster P, Blinder HL, Sankary H, McChesney L, Mital D, Williams JW. Control and reversal of chronic xenograft rejection in hamster-to-rat cardiac transplantation. Transplant Proc. 1996 Apr; 28(2):691-2. View in: PubMed

  169. Chong AS, Shen J, Xiao F, Blinder L, Foster P, Sankary H, Williams JW. Complete control of humoral and cell-mediated xenoreactions with the combination of leflunomide and cyclosporine. Transplant Proc. 1996 Apr; 28(2):684. View in: PubMed

  170. Foster PF, Kociss K, Shen J, Sankary HN, Mital D, Chong AS, Xiao F, Williams JW. Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor immunomodulation in the rat cardiac transplantation model. Transplantation. 1996 Apr 15; 61(7):1122-5. View in: PubMed

  171. Siemasko KF, Chong AS, Williams JW, Bremer EG, Finnegan A. Regulation of B cell function by the immunosuppressive agent leflunomide. Transplantation. 1996 Feb 27; 61(4):635-42. View in: PubMed

  172. Chong AS, Rezai K, Gebel HM, Finnegan A, Foster P, Xu X, Williams JW. Effects of leflunomide and other immunosuppressive agents on T cell proliferation in vitro. Transplantation. 1996 Jan 15; 61(1):140-5. View in: PubMed

  173. Sankary H, Chong A, Frye E, Scuderi P, Foster P, McChesney L, Williams J. Daily determinations of serum lymphotoxin allows for accurate early diagnosis of hepatic allograft rejection. Transplant Proc. 1993 Feb; 25(1 Pt 2):928-30. View in: PubMed

  174. Chong AS, Gebel H, Finnegan A, Petraitis EE, Jiang XL, Sankary HN, Foster P, Williams JW. Leflunomide, a novel immunomodulatory agent: in vitro analyses of the mechanism of immunosuppression. Transplant Proc. 1993 Feb; 25(1 Pt 1):747-9. View in: PubMed

  175. Williams JW, Xiao F, Foster PF, Chong A, Sharma S, Bartlett R, Sankary HN. Immunosuppressive effects of leflunomide in a cardiac allograft model. Transplant Proc. 1993 Feb; 25(1 Pt 1):745-6. View in: PubMed

  176. Chong AS, Finnegan A, Jiang X, Gebel H, Sankary HN, Foster P, Williams JW. Leflunomide, a novel immunosuppressive agent. The mechanism of inhibition of T cell proliferation. Transplantation. 1993 Jun; 55(6):1361-6. View in: PubMed

  177. Williams JW, Xiao F, Foster P, Clardy C, McChesney L, Sankary H, Chong AS. Leflunomide in experimental transplantation. Control of rejection and alloantibody production, reversal of acute rejection, and interaction with cyclosporine. Transplantation. 1994 Apr 27; 57(8):1223-31. View in: PubMed

  178. Chong AS, Markham PN, Gebel HM, Bines SD, Coon JS. Diverse multidrug-resistance-modification agents inhibit cytolytic activity of natural killer cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1993; 36(2):133-9. View in: PubMed

  179. Foster PF, Xiao F, Kociss K, Chong AS, Sankary HN, McChesney L, Cohn S, Williams JW. Allograft ultraviolet-B irradiation in rat small intestinal transplantation. Transplant Proc. 1994 Jun; 26(3):1624-5. View in: PubMed

  180. Foster PF, Xiao F, Kociss K, Chong AS, Sankary HN, McChesney L, Cohn S, Williams JW. Leflunomide immunosuppression in rat small intestinal transplantation. Transplant Proc. 1994 Jun; 26(3):1599-600. View in: PubMed

  181. Foster PF, Sankary HN, McChesney L, Xiao F, Kociss K, Koukoulis G, Chong AS, Cohn S, Williams JW. Splanchnic transplantation. Transplant Proc. 1994 Jun; 26(3):1411-2. View in: PubMed

  182. Xiao F, Chong A, Foster P, Sankary H, McChesney L, Williams JM, Frieders D, Williams JW. Effect of leflunomide in control of acute rejection in hamster-to-rat cardiac xenografts. Transplant Proc. 1994 Jun; 26(3):1263-5. View in: PubMed

  183. Xiao F, Chong AS, Foster P, Sankary H, McChesney L, Koukoulis G, Yang J, Frieders D, Williams JW. Leflunomide controls rejection in hamster to rat cardiac xenografts. Transplantation. 1994 Oct 15; 58(7):828-34. View in: PubMed

  184. Sankary H, Chong A, Foster P, Brown E, Williams J. Improved viability of hepatic allografts from fasted donors is associated with decreased peripheral TNF activity. J Surg Res. 1995 Mar; 58(3):337-43. View in: PubMed

  185. Shen F, Xu XL, Graf LH, Chong AS. CD45-cross-linking stimulates IFN-gamma production in NK cells. J Immunol. 1995 Jan 15; 154(2):644-52. View in: PubMed

  186. Xu X, Williams JW, Bremer EG, Finnegan A, Chong AS. Inhibition of protein tyrosine phosphorylation in T cells by a novel immunosuppressive agent, leflunomide. J Biol Chem. 1995 May 26; 270(21):12398-403. View in: PubMed

  187. Markham PN, Coon JS, Chong AS, Gebel HM. Natural killer cell cytotoxicity and the multidrug resistance gene. Transplant Proc. 1993 Feb; 25(1 Pt 1):96-7. View in: PubMed

  188. Edwards BS, Curry MS, Southon EA, Chong AS, Graf LH. Evidence for a dithiol-activated signaling pathway in natural killer cell avidity regulation of leukocyte function antigen-1: structural requirements and relationship to phorbol ester- and CD16-triggered pathways. Blood. 1995 Sep 15; 86(6):2288-301. View in: PubMed

  189. Xu X, Chong AS. Cross-linking of CD45 on NK cells stimulates p56lck-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation and IFN-gamma production. J Immunol. 1995 Dec 01; 155(11):5241-8. View in: PubMed

  190. Sankary HN, Chong A, Foster P, Brown E, Shen J, Kimura R, Rayudu G, Williams J. Inactivation of Kupffer cells after prolonged donor fasting improves viability of transplanted hepatic allografts. Hepatology. 1995 Oct; 22(4 Pt 1):1236-42. View in: PubMed

  191. Chong AS, Jiang XL, Scuderi P, Lamas M, Graf LH. ICAM-1 and LFA-3 enhance the ability of anti-CD3 mAb to stimulate interferon gamma production in interleukin-2-activated T cells. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1994 Aug; 39(2):127-34. View in: PubMed

  192. Chong AS, Boussy IA, Jiang XL, Lamas M, Graf LH. CD54/ICAM-1 is a costimulator of NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Cell Immunol. 1994 Aug; 157(1):92-105. View in: PubMed

  193. Xiao F, Chong A, Shen J, Yang J, Short J, Foster P, Sankary H, Jensik S, Mital D, McChesney L, et al. Pharmacologically induced regression of chronic transplant rejection. Transplantation. 1995 Nov 27; 60(10):1065-72. View in: PubMed

  194. Chong AS, Parish CR. Nonimmune lymphocyte-macrophage interaction. II. Evidence that the interaction involves sulfated polysaccharide recognition. Cell Immunol. 1985 May; 92(2):277-89. View in: PubMed

  195. Chong AS, Parish CR. Nonimmune lymphocyte-macrophage interaction. I. Quantification by an automated colorimetric assay. Cell Immunol. 1985 May; 92(2):265-76. View in: PubMed

  196. Chong AS, Parish CR. Cell surface receptors for sulphated polysaccharides: a potential marker for macrophage subsets. Immunology. 1986 Jun; 58(2):277-84. View in: PubMed

  197. Chong AS, Hersh EM, Grimes WJ. Blocking of lymphokine activated killer (LAK) cell mediated cytotoxicity by cell-sized beads bearing tumor cell proteins. J Immunol. 1988 Dec 15; 141(12):4418-24. View in: PubMed

  198. Chong AS, Aleksijevic A, Scuderi P, Hersh EM, Grimes WJ. Phenotypic and functional analysis of lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cell clones. Ability of CD3+, LAK cell clones to produce interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor upon stimulation with tumor targets. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1989; 29(4):270-8. View in: PubMed

  199. Chong AS, Scuderi P, Grimes WJ, Hersh EM. Tumor targets stimulate IL-2 activated killer cells to produce interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor. J Immunol. 1989 Mar 15; 142(6):2133-9. View in: PubMed

  200. Hersh EM, Scuderi P, Grimes WJ, Chong A, Brailey JL, Gschwind CR, Salmon SE. Cytostatic and cytotoxic activity of lymphokine-activated killer cell supernatants. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1989; 30(1):65-70. View in: PubMed

  201. Chong AS, Ybarrondo B, Grimes WJ, Hersh EM, Scuderi P. Phenotypic analyses of lymphokine-activated killer cells that release interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1990; 31(4):255-9. View in: PubMed

  202. Scuderi P, Woo L, Chong AS, Liu R, Salmon SE. Modification of the clonogenic assay for the detection of lymphokine activated killer cell activity. J Immunol Methods. 1990 Mar 27; 128(1):119-26. View in: PubMed

  203. Chong AS, Bier DE, Grimes WJ, Hersh EM. Gamma-irradiated peripheral blood mononuclear cells can express LAK activity. Int J Cell Cloning. 1991 Jan; 9(1):65-77. View in: PubMed

  204. Chong AS, Pinkard JK, Lam KS, Scuderi P, Hersh EM, Grimes WJ. Ability of cell-sized beads bearing tumor cell membrane proteins to stimulate LAK cells to secrete interferon-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. Cell Immunol. 1991 Apr 15; 134(1):96-110. View in: PubMed

  205. Coon JS, Wang YZ, Bines SD, Markham PN, Chong AS, Gebel HM. Multidrug resistance activity in human lymphocytes. Hum Immunol. 1991 Oct; 32(2):134-40. View in: PubMed

  206. Scuderi P, Finley PR, Shon BY, Udall JN, Roe DJ, Chong AS. Regulation of tumor necrosis factor secretion in leukocytes from alpha-1-antitrypsin deficient humans. Immunol Invest. 1990 Oct-Dec; 19(5-6):453-61. View in: PubMed

  207. Lee BW, Yap HK, Quah TC, Chong A, Seah CC. T cell immunodeficiency in dyskeratosis congenita. Arch Dis Child. 1992 Apr; 67(4):524-6. View in: PubMed

  208. Chong AS, Staren ED, Scuderi P. Monoclonal antibodies anti-CD3, anti-TCR alpha beta and anti-CD2 act synergistically with tumor cells to stimulate lymphokine-activated killer cells and tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes to secrete interferon gamma. Cancer Immunol Immunother. 1992; 35(5):335-41. View in: PubMed

  209. Chong AS, Boussy IA, Graf LH, Scuderi P. Stimulation of IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha, and TNF-beta secretion in IL-2-activated T cells: costimulatory roles for LFA-1, LFA-2, CD44, and CD45 molecules. Cell Immunol. 1992 Oct 01; 144(1):69-79. View in: PubMed